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Articles by R. W Evans
Total Records ( 2 ) for R. W Evans
  K. R Motoyama , T Kadowaki , A El Saed , R. D Abbott , R. W Evans , K Sutton Tyrrell , B. L Rodriquez , D Edmundowicz , B. J Willcox , N Katsumi , T Otake , S Kadowaki , L. H Kuller and A. Sekikawa
 

Background: The association of serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with lipids in different populations is not known.

Objective: Our aim was to examine the association of serum n–6 (omega-6) or n–3 (omega-3) PUFAs with triglycerides or HDL-cholesterol concentrations in 261 white, 285 Japanese, and 212 Japanese American men aged 40–49 y.

Design: We used a population-based cross-sectional study. Of the original sample (n = 926), those taking lipid-lowering medications or who had diabetes (n = 168) were excluded. Serum fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Multiple regression models as a function of tertile groups of each PUFA were used.

Results: Serum n–6 PUFAs were significantly inversely associated with triglycerides across populations after adjustment for age, body mass index, pack-years of smoking, and ethanol consumption [β = –0.39 (P < 0.001), –0.38 (P < 0.001), and –0.33 (P < 0.001) in whites, Japanese, and Japanese Americans, respectively]. Marine n–3 PUFAs were significantly inversely associated with triglycerides across populations [β = –0.15 (P < 0.001), –0.22 (P < 0.001), and –0.13 (P < 0.001) in whites, Japanese, and Japanese Americans, respectively]. n–6 PUFAs were significantly positively associated with HDL cholesterol in whites (β = 4.49, P < 0.001) and Japanese (β = 3.73, P < 0.01). Marine n–3 PUFAs were significantly positively associated with HDL cholesterol in Japanese (β = 2.15, P < 0.05), and eicosapentaenoic acid was significantly positively associated with HDL cholesterol in whites (β = 2.68, P < 0.01).

Conclusion: Serum n–6 and n–3 PUFAs are inversely associated with triglycerides across populations.

  R. W Evans , W. H Applegate , D. M Briscoe , D. J Cohen , C. C Rorick , B. T Murphy and J. C. Madsen
 

Background and objectives: Immunosuppressive medications are essential in preventing kidney transplant rejection. Continuous insurance coverage for outpatient immunosuppressive medications remains a major issue. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence and consequences of cost-related immunosuppressive medication nonadherence.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A descriptive survey of all U.S. kidney transplant programs (n = 254) was conducted. The response rate for the survey exceeded 99%. The main outcome measures included the following: transplant recipient concerns related to medication costs, ability to pay for medications, medication nonadherence and its consequences, and failure of transplant centers to place patients on the transplant waiting list.

Results: Continuous insurance coverage for outpatient immunosuppressive drugs is a problem having potentially grave consequences for the majority of kidney transplant recipients. More than 70% of kidney transplant programs report that their patients have an extremely or very serious problem paying for their medications. About 47% of the programs indicate that more than 40% of their patients are having difficulty paying for their immunosuppressive medications. In turn, 68% of the programs report deaths and graft losses attributable to cost-related immunosuppressive medication nonadherence. Some of the problems identified here are more significant for adult than pediatric patients.

Conclusions: The prevalence and consequences of cost-related immunosuppressive medication nonadherence among kidney transplant recipients have now been documented. The results presented here should serve as the necessary impetus for the development of health care policies supporting Medicare coverage of immunosuppressive medications for the life of the transplanted kidney.

 
 
 
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