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Articles by R. Ramirez
Total Records ( 3 ) for R. Ramirez
  M.Y. Guerrero , S.C. Flores-Peinado , M. Becerril-Herrera , A. Cardona-Leija , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , M.M. Zamora-Fonseca , J. Toca , R. Ramirez , J.A. Toca and D. Mota-Rojas
  The aim of this research was to study the effect of cervical dislocation and electric stunning of the California breed rabbit with a rest period before sacrifice (at 70 days of age) as well as the effect of same on sanguineous pH, temperature, glucose levels, creatine kinase, and slaughter performance. Forty male and female rabbits of the California breed were used. The sacrificed animals had either cervical dislocation or electrical stunning performed on them, then sacrificed according to normal regulatory practices. Our study is based on two insensibilization methods, cervical dislocation and electric stunning. The results show that plasmatic glucose and temperature before sacrifice and after insensibilization were not affected significantly (p>0.05) in the rest period or by sacrificial method. The pH of the animals that were given a rest period previous to sacrifice was significantly different from the animals that were not given rest; no significant difference between the insensibilization methods was found. We found a significant difference for bleeding times (p< 0.05) between cervical dislocation with rest compared to electrical stunning without rest. The rest period (p>0.05) did not significantly affect the volume of blood recovered during bleeding. However when comparing bleeding volume by insensibilization method significant statistical differences (p< 0.05) were observed. There were no significant difference in the variables of carcass evaluation; however, the lack of a rest before sacrifice affected pH values and temperature of the rabbit meat significantly.
  R. Foroughbakhch , .L. Hernandez Pinero , R. Ramirez , M. A. Alvarado , O. A. Gonzalez de Leon , A. Rocha and M.H. Badii
  The quality of cattle feed supplements may be enhanced by the addition of certain vegetable components which improve its nutritional value. However, these structural components may vary according to the climate conditions prevalent during the seasonal changes in temperate or subtropical areas. In this sense a characterization of dry leaves from several shrub species was carried out in comparison to alfalfa hay to determine their partial dry weight, crude protein, ash, cell walls, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and condensed tannins contained during the four seasons. Results showed significant variations between species and seasons in all the variables studied. Thus the importance value of each constituent varies according to the season and so the energy contributed by them to the rumen microorganisms for feed digestion. Likewise, overall high nutritional values are maintained by shrubs even in unfavorable climate conditions, therefore their incorporation in livestock feeding should be normally accomplished.
  R. Foroughbakhch , J.L. Hernandez-Pinero , R. Ramirez , M.A. Alvarado , M.H. Badii , A. Rocha and M.A. Guzman-Lucio
  In the semiarid and subtropical regions of northeastern Mexico, leaves and pods of Leucaena sp. are important forage complements into ruminant feeding. In order to determine the effectiveness of the use of Leucaena as fodder, samples of leaves of four species L. diversifolia, L. leucocephala, L. pulverulenta, L. shannoni and the hybrid L. leucocephala K743 were collected for estimation of some of their chemical characteristics, cell wall components, mineral composition, Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) concentration and tannin and mimosine content. Results from chemical analysis revealed significant (p< 0.05) differences in nutrient values between species and hybrid of Leucaena. The highest value of crude protein (27.4%) and lowest ash content (7.9%) were exhibited by L. leucocephala K 743, while the highest NDF (38.5%) and ADF (26.8%) content were observed in L. pulverulenta and L. diversifolia. Low level of hemicellulose and soluble ash was observed in L. pulverulenta (7.3% and 0.11% respectively). The maximum mimosine content was observed in L. leucocephala (3.02%) and L. pulverulenta (2.91%). The VFA was higher in L. diversifolia (55.6mM) and L. leucocephala (51.5 mM) compared to L. pulverulenta (42.0 mM) and L. shannoni (48.3 mM). L. leucocephala had higher content of iron (115.5 ppm), lead (2.02 ppm) and aluminum (133.2 ppm) compared to others species, whereas, L. diversifolia showed the higher values in zinc (14.3 ppm), cobalt (0.06 ppm) and manganese (36.8 ppm). The leaves of Leucaena sp. should be considered as different entities than other ingredients of the traditional diets when characterizing nutrient quality.
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