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Articles by R. J. Heine
Total Records ( 4 ) for R. J. Heine
  M. C. G. J. Brouwers , J. M. Dekker , M. M. J. van Greevenbroek , C. J. H. van der Kallen , R. J. Heine , T. W. A. de Bruin and C. D. A. Stehouwer

Aims  Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are often fairly normal in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). We anticipated that a parabolic relation between plasma triglycerides and LDL-C, as previously demonstrated in familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCHL), might account for this phenomenon.

Methods  Our hypothesis was tested in 1343 subjects derived from the general population who were studied on two occasions 6 years apart (the Hoorn study). Three groups were constructed depending on plasma triglycerides: group A (individuals with both measurements below 1.5 mmol/l), group B (one measurement below and one above 1.5 mmol/l) and group C (both measurements above 1.5 mmol/l). Diabetes status was ascertained by an oral glucose tolerance test.

Results  In a mixed linear model, a significant, positive relation between triglycerides and LDL-C was observed for males in group A (βa = 0.5, P < 0.001) and group B (βb = 0.2, P < 0.001), whereas a significant negative relation was found for males in group C (βc = −0.2, P = 0.003). The regression slopes did not differ between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Similar results were obtained for women, with the exception that the relation was not significantly negative in group C (βc = −0.1, P = 0.4).

Conclusion  Plasma triglcyerides and LDL-C are related in a parabolic fashion, not only in FCHL, but also in the general population and Type 2 DM. These findings aid our interpretation of typical dyslipidaemia and the effects of treatment that are frequently observed in hypertriglyceridaemic states.

  A. M. Wessels , F. Pouwer , P. H. L. M. Geelhoed-Duijvestijn , M. Snel , P. J. Kostense , P. Scheltens , R. J. Heine and F.J. Snoek

Aims  Mild cognitive deficits have been determined in both types of diabetes using neurocognitive tests. Little is known about the degree to which patients complain about their cognitive functioning. This study set out to investigate the magnitude and correlates of self-reported cognitive failure in adult out-patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

Methods  Subjective cognitive functioning was measured in 187 diabetic patients using the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). Demographic and clinical characteristics were retrieved from the medical records. The Patient Health Questionnaire 9 items (PHQ-9) was self-administered along with the CFQ to correct for the confounding effect of depression.

Results  Analyses were based on 55 patients with Type 1 diabetes and 100 patients with Type 2 diabetes. No difference in mean CFQ score was observed between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients or between Type 1 diabetic patients and healthy control subjects. Female patients with Type 2 diabetes reported significantly fewer cognitive complaints compared with female healthy control subjects. None of the demographic variables and diabetes-related complications was associated with subjective cognitive complaints. A strong positive association was found between depression symptomatology and frequency of self-reported cognitive failure.

Conclusions  Our study could not confirm elevated subjective cognitive complaints in a group of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes patients, as might be expected given the observed elevated rates of mild cognitive dysfunction in patients with diabetes. Self-reported cognitive failure appears largely determined by depressive symptomatology. Therefore, affective status should be included in any cognitive assessment procedure.

  K. M. P. Van Bastelaar , F. Pouwer , P. H. L. M. Geelhoed-Duijvestijn , C. J. Tack , E. Bazelmans , A. T. Beekman , R. J. Heine and F. J. Snoek
  Objectives To investigate whether diabetes-specific emotional distress mediates the relationship between depression and glycaemic control in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
Research design and methods Data were derived from the baseline assessment of a depression in diabetes screening study carried out in three tertiary diabetes clinics in the Netherlands. Most recent glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement was obtained from medical records. The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID) were used to measure depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress respectively. Linear regression was performed to examine the mediating effect of diabetes–distress.
Results Complete data were available for 627 outpatients with Type 1 (= 280) and Type 2 (n = 347) diabetes. Analyses showed that diabetes–distress mediated the relation between depression and glycaemic control and not differently for both disease types. Post-hoc analyses revealed that patients depressed and distressed by their diabetes were in significantly poorer glycaemic control relative to those not depressed nor distressed (HbA1c 8.7 ± 1.7 vs. 7.6 ± 1.2% in those without depressive symptoms, 7.6 ± 1.1% in depressed only and 7.7 ± 1.1% in the distressed only, < 0.001). Depressed patients without elevated diabetes-distress did not show a significantly increased risk of elevated HbA1c.
Conclusions In explaining the association between depression and glycaemic control, diabetes-specific emotional distress appears to be an important mediator. Addressing diabetes-specific emotional problems as part of depression treatment in diabetes patients may help improve glycaemic outcomes.
  F. Pouwer , P. H. L. M. Geelhoed-Duijvestijn , C. J. Tack , E. Bazelmans , A.-J. Beekman , R. J. Heine and F. J. Snoek
  Aims: Depression is common in diabetes, but the scope of the problem and associated correlates are not well established in specialist diabetes care. We aimed to determine the prevalence of depression among adult outpatients with Type 1 (T1DM) or Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using both self-report measures and a diagnostic interview, and to establish demographic and clinical characteristics associated with depressive affect.Methods: A random sample of 2055 diabetes out-patients from three diabetes clinics was invited to participate. Depressive affect was assessed using the World Health Organization-5 Well Being Index (WHO-5), the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CESD) using predefined cut-off scores, and depressive disorder with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Associations between depression and patient characteristics were explored using regression analyses.Results: Seven hundred and seventy-two patients completed the depression questionnaires. About one-third of T1DM patients and 37–43% of T2DM patients reported depressive affect (WHO-5). The prevalence of depressive affect (CESD) was 25% and 30% for men and women with T1DM, and 35% and 38% for men and women with T2DM, respectively. Based on the CIDI, 8% of T1DM patients (no gender difference) and 2% of men and 21% of women with T2DM suffered from a depressive disorder. Depressive affect was associated with poor glycaemic control and proliferative retinopathy in T1DM, while non-Dutch descent, obesity and neuropathy were correlates in T2DM.Conclusions: Depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder constitute a common comorbid problem among Dutch out-patients with T1DM or T2DM and appear particularly common in migrants and women with T2DM.
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