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Articles by R. J Solomon
Total Records ( 2 ) for R. J Solomon
  J. R Brown , J. F Robb , C. A Block , A. C Schoolwerth , A. V Kaplan , G. T O'Connor , R. J Solomon and D. J. Malenka

Previous work on contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) has identified contrast volume as a risk factor and suggested that there is a maximum allowable contrast dose (MACD) above which the risk of CI-AKI is markedly increased. We hypothesized that there is a relationship between contrast volume and CI-AKI and that there might be reason to track incremental contrast volumes above and below the MACD limit.

Methods and Results—

Consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were prospectively enrolled from 2000 to 2008 (n=10 065). Patients on dialysis before PCI were excluded (n=155). MACD was defined as (5 mLxbody weight [kg])/baseline serum creatinine [mg/dL]) and divided into categories in which 1.0 reflects the MACD limit: ≤MACD ratios (<0.5, 0.5 to 0.75, and 0.75 to 1.0) and >MACD (1.0 to 1.5, 1.5 to 2.0, and >2.0). CI-AKI was defined as a ≥0.3 (mg/dL) or ≥50% increase in serum creatinine from baseline or new dialysis. Multivariable regression was conducted to evaluate the effect of exceeding the MACD on CI-AKI. Twenty percent of patients exceeded the MACD. Risk-adjusted CI-AKI increased by an average of 45% for each category exceeding the MACD (odds ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 1.62) Adjusted odds ratios for each category exceeding the MACD were 1.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 1.97), 2.02 (95% confidence interval, 1.45 to 2.81), and 2.94 (95% confidence interval, 1.93 to 4.48). CI-AKI for contrast dose <MACD showed no statistical difference (P=0.5).


Contrast volume is a key risk factor for CI-AKI and matters the most in the highest-risk patient. The incremental use of contrast beyond the MACD is associated with an increased risk of CI-AKI.

  R. J Solomon , R Mehran , M. K Natarajan , S Doucet , R. E Katholi , C. S Staniloae , S. K Sharma , M Labinaz , J. L Gelormini and B. J. Barrett

Background and objectives: The relationship of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) to long-term adverse events (AEs) is controversial. Although an association with AEs has been previously reported, it is unclear whether CIN is causally related to these AEs.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We obtained long-term (≥1 yr) follow-up on 294 patients who participated in a randomized, double-blind comparison of two prevention strategies for CIN (iopamidol versus iodixanol). A difference in the incidence of AEs between patients who had developed CIN and those who had not was performed using a 2 test and Poisson regression analysis. A similar statistical approach was used for the differences in AEs between those who received iopamidol or iodixanol. Multiple definitions of CIN were used to strengthen and validate the results and conclusions.

Results: The rate of long-term AEs was higher in individuals with CIN (all definitions of CIN). After adjustment for baseline comorbidities and risk factors, the adjusted incidence rate ratio for AEs was twice as high in those with CIN. Randomization to iopamidol reduced both the incidence of CIN and AEs.

Conclusions: The parallel decrease in the incidence of CIN and AEs in one arm of this randomized trial supports a causal role for CIN.

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