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Articles by R. E. Allen
Total Records ( 8 ) for R. E. Allen
  R. P Rhoads , R. M Johnson , C. R Rathbone , X Liu , C Temm Grove , S. M Sheehan , J. B Hoying and R. E. Allen

Muscle regeneration involves the coordination of myogenesis and revascularization to restore proper muscle function. Myogenesis is driven by resident stem cells termed satellite cells (SC), whereas angiogenesis arises from endothelial cells and perivascular cells of preexisting vascular segments and the collateral vasculature. Communication between myogenic and angiogenic cells seems plausible, especially given the number of growth factors produced by SC. To characterize these interactions, we developed an in vitro coculture model composed of rat skeletal muscle SC and microvascular fragments (MVF). In this system, isolated epididymal MVF suspended in collagen gel are cultured over a rat SC monolayer culture. In the presence of SC, MVF exhibit greater indices of angiogenesis than MVF cultured alone. A positive dose-dependent effect of SC conditioned medium (CM) on MVF growth was observed, suggesting that SC secrete soluble-acting growth factor(s). Next, we specifically blocked VEGF action in SC CM, and this was sufficient to abolish satellite cell-induced angiogenesis. Finally, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a transcriptional regulator of VEGF gene expression, was found to be expressed in cultured SC and in putative SC in sections of in vivo stretch-injured rat muscle. Hypoxic culture conditions increased SC HIF-1 activity, which was positively associated with SC VEGF gene expression and protein levels. Collectively, these initial observations suggest that a heretofore unexplored aspect of satellite cell physiology is the initiation of a proangiogenic program.

  R Tatsumi , Y Sankoda , J. E Anderson , Y Sato , W Mizunoya , N Shimizu , T Suzuki , M Yamada , R. P Rhoads , Y Ikeuchi and R. E. Allen

Regenerative coordination and remodeling of the intramuscular motoneuron network and neuromuscular connections are critical for restoring skeletal muscle function and physiological properties. The regulatory mechanisms of such coordination remain unclear, although both attractive and repulsive axon guidance molecules may be involved in the signaling pathway. Here we show that expression of a neural secreted chemorepellent semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is remarkably upregulated in satellite cells of resident myogenic stem cells that are positioned beneath the basal lamina of mature muscle fibers, when treated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), established as an essential cue in muscle fiber growth and regeneration. When satellite cells were treated with HGF in primary cultures of cells or muscle fibers, Sema3A message and protein were upregulated as revealed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunochemical studies. Other growth factors had no inductive effect except for a slight effect of epidermal growth factor treatment. Sema3A upregulation was HGF dose dependent with a maximum (about 7- to 8-fold units relative to the control) at 10–25 ng/ml and occurred exclusively at the early-differentiation stage, as characterized by the level of myogenin expression and proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) of the cells. Neutralizing antibody to the HGF-specific receptor, c-met, did not abolish the HGF response, indicating that c-met may not mediate the Sema3A expression signaling. Finally, in vivo Sema3A was upregulated in the differentiation phase of satellite cells isolated from muscle regenerating following crush injury. Overall, the data highlight a heretofore unexplored and active role for satellite cells as a key source of Sema3A expression triggered by HGF, hence suggesting that regenerative activity toward motor innervation may importantly reside in satellite cells and could be a crucial contributor during postnatal myogenesis.

  M Yamada , R Tatsumi , K Yamanouchi , T Hosoyama , S. i Shiratsuchi , A Sato , W Mizunoya , Y Ikeuchi , M Furuse and R. E. Allen

Skeletal muscle regeneration and work-induced hypertrophy rely on molecular events responsible for activation and quiescence of resident myogenic stem cells, satellite cells. Recent studies demonstrated that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) triggers activation and entry into the cell cycle in response to mechanical perturbation, and that subsequent expression of myostatin may signal a return to cell quiescence. However, mechanisms responsible for coordinating expression of myostatin after an appropriate time lag following activation and proliferation are not clear. Here we address the possible role of HGF in quiescence through its concentration-dependent negative-feedback mechanism following satellite cell activation and proliferation. When activated/proliferating satellite cell cultures were treated for 24 h beginning 48-h postplating with 10–500 ng/ml HGF, the percentage of bromodeoxyuridine-incorporating cells decreased down to a baseline level comparable to 24-h control cultures in a HGF dose-dependent manner. The high level HGF treatment did not impair the cell viability and differentiation levels, and cells could be reactivated by lowering HGF concentrations to 2.5 ng/ml, a concentration that has been shown to optimally stimulate activation of satellite cells in culture. Coaddition of antimyostatin neutralizing antibody could prevent deactivation and abolish upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21. Myostatin mRNA expression was upregulated with high concentrations of HGF, as demonstrated by RT-PCR, and enhanced myostatin protein expression and secretion were revealed by Western blots of the cell lysates and conditioned media. These results indicate that HGF could induce satellite cell quiescence by stimulating myostatin expression. The HGF concentration required (over 10–50 ng/ml), however, is much higher than that for activation, which is initiated by rapid release of HGF from its extracellular association. Considering that HGF is produced by satellite cells and spleen and liver cells in response to muscle damage, local concentrations of HGF bathing satellite cells may reach a threshold sufficient to induce myostatin expression. This time lag may delay action of the quiescence signaling program in proliferating satellite cells during initial phases of muscle regeneration followed by induction of quiescence in a subset of cells during later phases.

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