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Articles by R. A. Lubet
Total Records ( 2 ) for R. A. Lubet
  V. E Steele , C. V Rao , Y Zhang , J Patlolla , D Boring , L Kopelovich , M. M Juliana , C. J Grubbs and R. A. Lubet
 

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have been highly effective in preventing colon, urinary bladder, and skin cancer preclinically, and also in clinical trials of colon adenoma formation. However, certain NSAIDs cause gastrointestinal ulceration and may increase cardiovascular events. Naproxen seems to cause the lowest cardiovascular events of the common NSAIDs other than aspirin. Nitric oxide (NO)-naproxen was tested based on the finding that adding a NO group to NSAIDs may help alleviate GI toxicity. In the azoxymethane-induced rat colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) model, naproxen administered at 200 and 400 ppm in the diet reduced mean ACFs in the colon by about 45% to 60%, respectively. NO-naproxen was likewise administered in the diet at roughly equimolar doses (300 and 600 ppm) and reduced total ACF by 20% to 40%, respectively. In the hydroxybutyl (butyl) nitrosamine rat urinary bladder cancer model, NO-naproxen was given at 183 or 550 ppm in the diet, and naproxen at 128 ppm. The NO-naproxen groups had 77% and 73% decreases, respectively, in the development of large urinary bladder tumors, whereas the 128 ppm naproxen group also showed a strong decrease (69%). If treatments were started 3 months after hydroxybutyl (butyl) nitrosamine, NO-naproxen (550 ppm) and naproxen (400 ppm) were also highly effective (86-94% decreases). In the methylnitrosourea-induced mammary cancer model in rats, NO-naproxen and naproxen showed nonsignificant inhibitions (12% and 24%) at 550 and 400 ppm, respectively. These data show that both naproxen and NO-naproxen are effective agents against urinary bladder and colon, but not mammary, carcinogenesis.

  D. L McCormick , J. M Phillips , T. L Horn , W. D Johnson , V. E Steele and R. A. Lubet
 

Oral squamous cell carcinomas induced in rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (NQO) show substantial overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) when compared with adjacent phenotypically normal oral tissues. By contrast, neither 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) nor 12-LOX is overexpressed in rat oral cancers. Two chemoprevention studies were done to test the resulting hypothesis that COX-2 is a useful target for oral cancer chemoprevention in the rat. In both studies, male F344 rats received drinking water exposure to NQO (20 ppm) for 10 weeks, followed by administration of chemopreventive agents from week 10 until study termination at week 26. In the first study, groups of rats were fed basal diet (control), or basal diet supplemented with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (500 or 1,500 mg/kg diet), the nonselective COX inhibitor piroxicam (50 or 150 mg/kg diet), or the 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton (2,000 mg/kg diet). In the second study, rats were fed basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with nitric oxide–naproxen (180 or 90 mg/kg diet), a nonselective COX inhibitor that shows reduced gastrointestinal toxicity. When compared with dietary controls, celecoxib decreased oral cancer incidence, cancer invasion score, and cancer-related mortality. Piroxicam decreased cancer-related mortality and cancer invasion score, whereas nitric oxide–naproxen decreased oral cancer incidence and cancer invasion score. By contrast, zileuton showed no chemopreventive activity by any parameter assessed. These data show that both selective and nonselective inhibitors of COX-2 can prevent NQO-induced oral carcinogenesis in rats. The chemopreventive activity of COX inhibitors may be linked to overexpression of their enzymatic target in incipient oral neoplasms. Cancer Prev Res; 3(1); 73–81.

 
 
 
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