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Articles by R. A Mason
Total Records ( 2 ) for R. A Mason
  R. A Mason , E. V Morlock , M. R Karagas , K. T Kelsey , C. J Marsit , A. R Schned and A. S. Andrew
 

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway has recently been appreciated as a central mediator of tumorigenesis and an important drug target; however, the influence of genetic variation in this pathway on bladder cancer is not understood. Pathway activation leads to cell proliferation, angiogenesis and is antiapoptotic. We sought to test the hypothesis that bladder cancer susceptibility and survival are modified by inherited variations in the sequence of the EGFR and its pathway members. We tested associations using a population-based study of 857 bladder cancer cases and 1191 controls from New Hampshire. Multifactor dimensionality reduction software was used to predict gene–gene interactions. We detected an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with variant genotypes for the single nucleotide polymorphisms EGFR_03 [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0–2.8)] and EGFR_05 [adjusted OR 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.1)] compared with wild-type. EGFR variants experienced longer survival than those with wild-type alleles [e.g. adjusted hazard ratio EGFR_1808 0.3 (95% CI 0.1–0.9)]. In contrast, the variant form of the ligand, EGF_04, had worse survival [adjusted hazard ratio 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.3)] compared with wild-type. Our findings suggest modified bladder cancer risk and survival associated with genetic variation in the EGFR pathway. Understanding these genetic influences on increased bladder cancer susceptibility and survival may help in cancer prevention, drug development and choice of therapeutic regimen.

  A. S Andrew , R. A Mason , V Memoli and E. J. Duell
 

Arsenic is an established lung carcinogen, however, the carcinogenic mechanisms are currently under investigation. Phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported with arsenic exposure in bladder cells. EGFR is a tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor that regulates important processes in carcinogenesis, including cell survival, cell cycle progression, tumor invasion, and angiogenesis. We investigated the mechanisms of EGFR pathway activation by levels of arsenic relevant to human exposure scenarios both in vitro using cultured lung epithelial cells, and in lung tumors samples from New England Lung Cancer Study participants. Toenail arsenic levels were used as an internal biomarker of arsenic exposure. Our in vitro data suggest that arsenic increases levels of the EGFR ligand, heparin binding-EGF, and activate EGFR phosphorylation in the lung. Downstream of EGFR, arsenic exposure increased pERK and cyclin D1 levels. These effects were inhibited by treatment of cultured cells with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Tarceva (erlotinib). In a consecutive series of human lung tumor specimens, pEGFR protein levels were higher in subjects with elevated toenail arsenic levels compared to those with low exposure (odds ratio adjusted for other factors, OR 4.1 (95% confidence interval 1.1–15.6) (p = 0.04). These data suggest that arsenic exposure may stimulate EGFR pathway activation in the lung. Moreover, the tumors that arise in arsenic-exposed individuals also exhibit signs of EGFR pathway dysregulation. Further work is needed to assess the clinical utility of targeting the EGFR pathway in subgroups of lung cancer patients who have been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic.

 
 
 
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