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Articles by R. A DePinho
Total Records ( 3 ) for R. A DePinho
  N Hariharan , Y Maejima , J Nakae , J Paik , R. A DePinho and J. Sadoshima
  Rationale:

Autophagy, a bulk degradation process of cytosolic proteins and organelles, is protective during nutrient starvation in cardiomyocytes (CMs). However, the underlying signaling mechanism mediating autophagy is not well understood.

Objective:

We investigated the role of FoxOs and its posttranslational modification in mediating starvation-induced autophagy.

Methods and Results:

Glucose deprivation (GD) increased autophagic flux in cultured CMs, as evidenced by increased mRFP-GFP-LC3 puncta and decreases in p62, which was accompanied by upregulation of Sirt1 and FoxO1. Overexpression of either Sirt1 or FoxO1 was sufficient for inducing autophagic flux, whereas both Sirt1 and FoxO1 were required for GD-induced autophagy. GD increased deacetylation of FoxO1, and Sirt1 was required for GD-induced deacetylation of FoxO1. Overexpression of FoxO1(3A/LXXAA), which cannot interact with Sirt1, or p300, a histone acetylase, increased acetylation of FoxO1 and inhibited GD-induced autophagy. FoxO1 increased expression of Rab7, a small GTP-binding protein that mediates late autophagosome–lysosome fusion, which was both necessary and sufficient for mediating FoxO1-induced increases in autophagic flux. Although cardiac function was maintained in control mice after 48 hours of food starvation, it was significantly deteriorated in mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of FoxO1(3A/LXXAA), those with cardiac-specific homozygous deletion of FoxO1 (c-FoxO1–/–), and beclin1+/– mice, in which autophagy is significantly inhibited.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that Sirt1-mediated deacetylation of FoxO1 and upregulation of Rab7 play an important role in mediating starvation-induced increases in autophagic flux, which in turn plays an essential role in maintaining left ventricular function during starvation.

  M. d. M Inda , R Bonavia , A Mukasa , Y Narita , D. W. Y Sah , S Vandenberg , C Brennan , T. G Johns , R Bachoo , P Hadwiger , P Tan , R. A DePinho , W Cavenee and F. Furnari
 

Human solid tumors frequently have pronounced heterogeneity of both neoplastic and normal cells on the histological, genetic, and gene expression levels. While current efforts are focused on understanding heterotypic interactions between tumor cells and surrounding normal cells, much less is known about the interactions between and among heterogeneous tumor cells within a neoplasm. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) amplification and mutation (EGFRvIII/EGFR) are signature pathogenetic events that are invariably expressed in a heterogeneous manner. Strikingly, despite its greater biological activity than wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR), individual GBM tumors expressing both amplified receptors typically express wtEGFR in far greater abundance than the EGFR lesion. We hypothesized that the minor EGFR-expressing subpopulation enhances tumorigenicity of the entire tumor cell population, and thereby maintains heterogeneity of expression of the two receptor forms in different cells. Using mixtures of glioma cells as well as immortalized murine astrocytes, we demonstrate that a paracrine mechanism driven by EGFR is the primary means for recruiting wtEGFR-expressing cells into accelerated proliferation in vivo. We determined that human glioma tissues, glioma cell lines, glioma stem cells, and immortalized mouse Ink4a/Arf–/– astrocytes that express EGFR each also express IL-6 and/or leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) cytokines. These cytokines activate gp130, which in turn activates wtEGFR in neighboring cells, leading to enhanced rates of tumor growth. Ablating IL-6, LIF, or gp130 uncouples this cellular cross-talk, and potently attenuates tumor growth enhancement. These findings support the view that a minor tumor cell population can potently drive accelerated growth of the entire tumor mass, and thereby actively maintain tumor cell heterogeneity within a tumor mass. Such interactions between genetically dissimilar cancer cells could provide novel points of therapeutic intervention.

  Y Harada , C Elly , G Ying , J. H Paik , R. A DePinho and Y. C. Liu
 

The transcription factor Foxp3 is essential for optimal regulatory T (T reg) cell development and function. Here, we show that CD4+ T cells from Cbl-b RING finger mutant knockin or Cbl-b–deficient mice show impaired TGF-β–induced Foxp3 expression. These T cells display augmented Foxo3a phosphorylation, but normal TGF-β signaling. Expression of Foxo3a rescues Foxp3 expression in Cbl-b–deficient T cells, and Foxo3a deficiency results in defective TGF-β–driven Foxp3 induction. A Foxo3a-binding motif is present in a proximal region of the Foxp3 promoter, and is required for Foxo3a association. Foxo1 exerts similar effects as Foxo3a on Foxp3 expression. This study reveals that Foxo factors promote transcription of the Foxp3 gene in induced T reg cells, and thus provides new mechanistic insight into Foxo-mediated T cell regulation.

 
 
 
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