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Articles by R Taub
Total Records ( 2 ) for R Taub
  J. C Tardif , P. L L'Allier , R Ibrahim , J. C Gregoire , A Nozza , M Cossette , S Kouz , M. A Lavoie , J Paquin , T. M Brotz , R Taub and J. Pressacco
 

Background— Production of leukotrienes by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) has been linked to unstable atherosclerotic plaques and cardiovascular events. VIA-2291 is a potent 5-LO inhibitor.

Methods and Results— In a double-blinded study, 191 patients were randomly assigned 3 weeks after an acute coronary syndrome to receive 25, 50, or 100 mg VIA-2291 or placebo daily for 12 weeks. The primary study end point, whole blood stimulated leukotriene LTB4 at trough drug level, was reduced in all VIA-2291 groups (P<0.0001) in a dose-dependent fashion, with approximately 80% inhibition in >90% of patients in the 100-mg group. A significant reduction of urine leukotriene LTE4 was obtained in all dose groups. No serious adverse events were considered related to study drug. A subset of 93 patients who had undergone a 64-slice coronary CT examination at baseline continued on study medication for a total of 24 weeks and underwent a repeat scan. Five of these patients withdrew or were noncompliant and 28 had nonevaluable scans. Among the 60 remaining patients, new coronary plaques were observed in 5 of 18 (27.8%) placebo-treated patients and in 2 of 42 (4.8%) VIA-2291–treated patients (P=0.01). A reduction in noncalcified plaque volume at 24 weeks versus placebo was observed in VIA-2291–treated groups in the 34 of these 60 patients in whom this end point was analyzable (P<0.01).

Conclusions— VIA-2291 reduces leukotriene production at 12 weeks after an acute coronary syndrome. Preliminary data from the CT substudy suggest that such a reduction in leukotriene production may influence atherosclerosis; however, this requires confirmation in a larger study.

Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00358826.

  S Sayed , D. R Langdon , S Odili , P Chen , C Buettger , A. B Schiffman , M Suchi , R Taub , J Grimsby , F. M Matschinsky and C. A. Stanley
  OBJECTIVE

Heterozygous activating mutations of glucokinase have been reported to cause hypoglycemia attributable to hyperinsulinism in a limited number of families. We report three children with de novo glucokinase hyperinsulinism mutations who displayed a spectrum of clinical phenotypes corresponding to marked differences in enzyme kinetics.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

Mutations were directly sequenced, and mutants were expressed as glutathionyl S-transferase–glucokinase fusion proteins. Kinetic analysis of the enzymes included determinations of stability, activity index, the response to glucokinase activator drug, and the effect of glucokinase regulatory protein.

RESULTS

Child 1 had an ins454A mutation, child 2 a W99L mutation, and child 3 an M197I mutation. Diazoxide treatment was effective in child 3 but ineffective in child 1 and only partially effective in child 2. Expression of the mutant glucokinase ins454A, W99L, and M197I enzymes revealed a continuum of high relative activity indexes in the three children (26, 8.9, and 3.1, respectively; wild type = 1.0). Allosteric responses to inhibition by glucokinase regulatory protein and activation by the drug RO0281675 were impaired by the ins454A but unaffected by the M197I mutation. Estimated thresholds for glucose-stimulated insulin release were more severely reduced by the ins454A than the M197I mutation and intermediate in the W99L mutation (1.1, 3.5, and 2.2 mmol/l, respectively; wild type = 5.0 mmol/l).

CONCLUSIONS

These results confirm the potency of glucokinase as the pancreatic β-cell glucose sensor, and they demonstrate that responsiveness to diazoxide varies with genotype in glucokinase hyperinsulinism resulting in hypoglycemia, which can be more difficult to control than previously believed.

 
 
 
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