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Articles by R Shao
Total Records ( 3 ) for R Shao
  J Johansson , Y Feng , R Shao , M Lonn , H Billig and E. Stener Victorin

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance, possibly reflecting defects in skeletal muscle and adipocyte insulin signaling. Low-frequency (2 Hz) electroacupuncture (EA) increases insulin sensitivity in female rats with dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced PCOS, but the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that low-frequency EA regulates mediators involved in skeletal muscle glucose uptake and metabolism and alters the lipid profile in rats with DHT-induced PCOS. To test this hypothesis, we implanted in prepubescent female rats 90-day continuous-release pellets containing DHT (PCOS). At 70 days of age, the rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: one received low-frequency EA (evoking muscle twitches) for 20–25 min five times/wk for 4–5 wk; the other did not. Controls were implanted with pellets containing vehicle only. All three groups were otherwise handled similarly. Lipid profile was measured in fasting blood samples. Insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, soleus muscle protein expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated Akt, and Akt substrate of 160 kDa was determined by Western blot analysis and GLUT4 location by immunofluorescence staining. PCOS EA rats had normalized insulin sensitivity, lower levels of total high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased expression of GLUT4 in different compartments of skeletal muscle compared with PCOS rats. Total weight and body composition did not differ in the groups. Thus, in rats with DHT-induced PCOS, low-frequency EA has systemic and local effects involving intracellular signaling pathways in muscle that may, at least in part, account for the marked improved insulin sensitivity.

  R Shao , S. X Zhang , B Weijdegard , S Zou , E Egecioglu , A Norstrom , M Brannstrom and H. Billig

Human ectopic pregnancy (EP) remains a common cause of pregnancy-related first trimester death. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from L-arginine by three NO synthases (NOS) in different tissues, including the Fallopian tube. Studies of knockout mouse models have improved our understanding of the function of NOS isoforms in reproduction, but their roles and specific mechanisms in infection-induced tubal dysfunction have not been fully elucidated. Here, we provide an overview of the expression, regulation and possible function of NOS isoforms in the Fallopian tube, highlighting the effects of infection-induced changes in the tubal cellular microenvironment (imbalance of NO production) on tubal dysfunction and the potential involvement of NOS isoforms in tubal EP after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. The non-equivalent regulation of tubal NOS isoforms during the menstrual cycle suggests that endogenous ovarian steroid hormones regulate NOS in an isoform-specific manner. The current literature suggests that infection with C. trachomatis induces an inflammatory response that eventually leads to tubal epithelial destruction and functional impairment, caused by a high NO output mediated by inducible NOS (iNOS). Therefore, tissue-specific therapeutic approaches to suppress iNOS expression may help to prevent ectopic implantation in patients with prior C. trachomatis infection of the Fallopian tube.

  R Shao , M Nutu , L Karlsson Lindahl , A Benrick , B Weijdegard , S Lager , E Egecioglu , J Fernandez Rodriguez , K Gemzell Danielsson , C Ohlsson , J. O Jansson and H. Billig

The action of interleukin-6 (IL-6) impacts female reproduction. Although IL-6 was recently shown to inhibit cilia activity in human fallopian tubes in vitro, the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-6 signaling to tubal function remain elusive. Here, we investigate the cellular localization, regulation, and possible function of two IL-6 receptors (IL-6R and gp130) in mouse and human fallopian tubes in vivo. We show that IL-6R is restricted to the cilia of epithelial cells in both mouse and human fallopian tubes. Exogenous 17β-estradiol (E2), but not progesterone (P4), causes a time-dependent decrease in IL-6R expression, which is blocked by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI-182,780. Exposure of different ER-selective agonists propyl-(1H)-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl-trisphenol or 2,3-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile demonstrated an ER subtype-specific regulation of IL-6R in mouse fallopian tubes. In contrast to IL-6R, gp130 was detected in tubal epithelial cells in mice but not in humans. In humans, gp130 was found in the muscle cells and was decreased in the periovulatory and luteal phases during the reproductive cycles, indicating a species-specific expression and regulation of gp130 in the fallopian tube. Expression of tubal IL-6R and gp130 in IL-6 knockout mice was found to be normal; however, E2 treatment increased IL-6R, but not gp130, in IL-6 knockout mice when compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, expression levels of IL-6R, but not gp130, decreased in parallel with estrogenic accelerated oocyte-cumulus complex (OCC) transport in mouse fallopian tubes. Our findings open the posibility that cilia-specific IL-6R may play a role in the regulation of OCC transport and suggest an estrogen-regulatory pathway of IL-6R in the fallopian tube.

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