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Articles by R Sagar
Total Records ( 4 ) for R Sagar
  S Lee , A Tsang , R. C Kessler , R Jin , N Sampson , L Andrade , E. G Karam , M. E. M Mora , K Merikangas , Y Nakane , D. G Popovici , J Posada Villa , R Sagar , J. E Wells , Z Zarkov and M. Petukhova
 

Background

The epidemiology of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder in the community is largely unknown.

Aims

To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling bipolar disorder in a large cross-national community sample.

Method

The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI version 3.0) was used to examine the prevalence, severity, comorbidity, impairment, suicidality, sociodemographics, childhood adversity and treatment of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling bipolar disorder in ten countries (n = 54 257).

Results

The 12-month prevalence of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder was 0.3%. Roughly a third and two-fifths of participants with lifetime and 12-month bipolar disorder respectively met criteria for rapid cycling. Compared with the non-rapid-cycling, rapid-cycling bipolar disorder was associated with younger age at onset, higher persistence, more severe depressive symptoms, greater impairment from depressive symptoms, more out-of-role days from mania/hypomania, more anxiety disorders and an increased likelihood of using health services. Associations regarding childhood, family and other sociodemographic correlates were less clear cut.

Conclusions

The community epidemiological profile of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder confirms most but not all current clinically based knowledge about the illness.

  R Bruffaerts , K Demyttenaere , G Borges , J. M Haro , W. T Chiu , I Hwang , E. G Karam , R. C Kessler , N Sampson , J Alonso , L. H Andrade , M Angermeyer , C Benjet , E Bromet , G de Girolamo , R de Graaf , S Florescu , O Gureje , I Horiguchi , C Hu , V Kovess , D Levinson , J Posada Villa , R Sagar , K Scott , A Tsang , S. M Vassilev , D. R Williams and M. K. Nock
 

Background

Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, but the precise effect of childhood adversities as risk factors for the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour (suicide ideation, plans and attempts) are not well understood.

Aims

To examine the associations between childhood adversities as risk factors for the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour across 21 countries worldwide.

Method

Respondents from nationally representative samples (n = 55 299) were interviewed regarding childhood adversities that occurred before the age of 18 years and lifetime suicidal behaviour.

Results

Childhood adversities were associated with an increased risk of suicide attempt and ideation in both bivariate and multivariate models (odds ratio range 1.2–5.7). The risk increased with the number of adversities experienced, but at a decreasing rate. Sexual and physical abuse were consistently the strongest risk factors for both the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour, especially during adolescence. Associations remained similar after additional adjustment for respondents’ lifetime mental disorder status.

Conclusions

Childhood adversities (especially intrusive or aggressive adversities) are powerful predictors of the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviours.

  D Levinson , M. D Lakoma , M Petukhova , M Schoenbaum , A. M Zaslavsky , M Angermeyer , G Borges , R Bruffaerts , G de Girolamo , R de Graaf , O Gureje , J. M Haro , C Hu , A. N Karam , N Kawakami , S Lee , J. P Lepine , M. O Browne , M Okoliyski , J Posada Villa , R Sagar , M. C Viana , D. R Williams and R. C. Kessler
 

Background

Burden-of-illness data, which are often used in setting healthcare policy-spending priorities, are unavailable for mental disorders in most countries.

Aims

To examine one central aspect of illness burden, the association of serious mental illness with earnings, in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys.

Method

The WMH Surveys were carried out in 10 high-income and 9 low- and middle-income countries. The associations of personal earnings with serious mental illness were estimated.

Results

Respondents with serious mental illness earned on average a third less than median earnings, with no significant between-country differences (2(9) = 5.5–8.1, P = 0.52–0.79). These losses are equivalent to 0.3–0.8% of total national earnings. Reduced earnings among those with earnings and the increased probability of not earning are both important components of these associations.

Conclusions

These results add to a growing body of evidence that mental disorders have high societal costs. Decisions about healthcare resource allocation should take these costs into consideration.

  R. C Kessler , K. A McLaughlin , J. G Green , M. J Gruber , N. A Sampson , A. M Zaslavsky , S Aguilar Gaxiola , A. O Alhamzawi , J Alonso , M Angermeyer , C Benjet , E Bromet , S Chatterji , G de Girolamo , K Demyttenaere , J Fayyad , S Florescu , G Gal , O Gureje , J. M Haro , C. y Hu , E. G Karam , N Kawakami , S Lee , J. P Lepine , J Ormel , J Posada Villa , R Sagar , A Tsang , T. B Ustun , S Vassilev , M. C Viana and D. R. Williams
 

Background

Although significant associations of childhood adversities with adult mental disorders are widely documented, most studies focus on single childhood adversities predicting single disorders.

Aims

To examine joint associations of 12 childhood adversities with first onset of 20 DSM–IV disorders in World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in 21 countries.

Method

Nationally or regionally representative surveys of 51 945 adults assessed childhood adversities and lifetime DSM–IV disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).

Results

Childhood adversities were highly prevalent and interrelated. Childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning (e.g. parental mental illness, child abuse, neglect) were the strongest predictors of disorders. Co-occurring childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning had significant subadditive predictive associations and little specificity across disorders. Childhood adversities account for 29.8% of all disorders across countries.

Conclusions

Childhood adversities have strong associations with all classes of disorders at all life-course stages in all groups of WMH countries. Long-term associations imply the existence of as-yet undetermined mediators.

 
 
 
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