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Articles by R Momenan
Total Records ( 2 ) for R Momenan
  M Feyder , R. M Karlsson , P Mathur , M Lyman , R Bock , R Momenan , J Munasinghe , M. L Scattoni , J Ihne , M Camp , C Graybeal , D Strathdee , A Begg , V. A Alvarez , P Kirsch , M Rietschel , S Cichon , H Walter , A Meyer Lindenberg , S. G. N Grant and A. Holmes
  Objective:

Research is increasingly linking autism spectrum disorders and other neurodevelopmental disorders to synaptic abnormalities ("synaptopathies"). PSD-95 (postsynaptic density-95, DLG4) orchestrates protein-protein interactions at excitatory synapses and is a major functional bridge interconnecting a neurexinneuroligin-SHANK pathway implicated in autism spectrum disorders.

Method:

The authors characterized behavioral, dendritic, and molecular phenotypic abnormalities relevant to autism spectrum disorders in mice with PSD-95 deletion (Dlg4–/–). The data from mice led to the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human DLG4 and the examination of associations between these variants and neural signatures of Williams' syndrome in a normal population, using functional and structural neuroimaging.

Results:

Dlg4–/– showed increased repetitive behaviors, abnormal communication and social behaviors, impaired motor coordination, and increased stress reactivity and anxiety-related responses. Dlg4–/– had subtle dysmorphology of amygdala dendritic spines and altered forebrain expression of various synaptic genes, including Cyln2, which regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and is a candidate gene for Williams' syndrome. A signifi-cant association was observed between variations in two human DLG4 SNPs and reduced intraparietal sulcus volume and abnormal cortico-amygdala coupling, both of which characterize Williams' syndrome.

Conclusions:

These findings demonstrate that DLG4 gene disruption in mice produces a complex range of behavioral and molecular abnormalities relevant to autism spectrum disorders and Williams' syndrome. The study provides an initial link between human DLG4 gene variation and key neural endophenotypes of Williams' syndrome and perhaps corticoamygdala regulation of emotional and social processes more generally.

  J. C Umhau , R Momenan , M. L Schwandt , E Singley , M Lifshitz , L Doty , L. J Adams , V Vengeliene , R Spanagel , Y Zhang , J Shen , D. T George , D Hommer and M. Heilig
 

Context  Acamprosate is approved for the treatment of alcoholism, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Results of animal studies suggest that a persistent hyperglutamatergic state contributes to the pathogenesis of alcoholism and that acamprosate may exert its actions by intervening in this process. Human translation of these findings is lacking.

Objective  To examine whether acamprosate modulates indices of central glutamate levels in recently abstinent alcohol-dependent patients as measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS).

Design  A 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled experimental medicine study, with 1H-MRS measures obtained on days 4 and 25.

Setting  An inpatient research unit at the NIH Clinical Center.

Patients  Thirty-three patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence and who were admitted for medically supervised withdrawal from ongoing alcohol use.

Intervention  Four weeks of acamprosate (initial oral loading followed by 1998 mg daily) or matched placebo, initiated at the time of admission.

Main Outcome Measures  The glutamate to creatine ratio as determined using single-voxel 1H-MRS in the anterior cingulate. Exploratory neuroendocrine, biochemical, and behavioral outcomes were also collected, as were safety- and tolerability-related measures.

Results  There was a highly significant suppression of the glutamate to creatine ratio across time by acamprosate (time x treatment interaction: F1,29 = 13.5, P < .001). Cerebrospinal fluid levels of glutamate obtained in a subset of patients 4 weeks into abstinence were uncorrelated with the MRS measures and unaffected by treatment but were strongly correlated (R2 = 0.48, P < .001) with alcohol dependence severity. Other exploratory outcomes, including repeated dexamethasone–corticotropin-releasing hormone tests, and psychiatric ratings were unaffected. Among tolerability measures, gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly greater in acamprosate-treated individuals, in agreement with the established profile of acamprosate.

Conclusion  The MRS measures of central glutamate are reduced across time when acamprosate therapy is initiated at the onset of alcohol abstinence.

Trial Registration  clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00106106

 
 
 
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