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Articles by R Kaida
Total Records ( 3 ) for R Kaida
  K Baba , Y. W Park , T Kaku , R Kaida , M Takeuchi , M Yoshida , Y Hosoo , Y Ojio , T Okuyama , T Taniguchi , Y Ohmiya , T Kondo , Z Shani , O Shoseyov , T Awano , S Serada , N Norioka , S Norioka and T. Hayashi
 

In response to environmental variation, angiosperm trees bend their stems by forming tension wood, which consists of a cellulose-rich G (gelatinous)-layer in the walls of fiber cells and generates abnormal tensile stress in the secondary xylem. We produced transgenic poplar plants overexpressing several endoglycanases to reduce each specific polysaccharide in the cell wall, as the secondary xylem consists of primary and secondary wall layers. When placed horizontally, the basal regions of stems of transgenic poplars overexpressing xyloglucanase alone could not bend upward due to low strain in the tension side of the xylem. In the wild-type plants, xyloglucan was found in the inner surface of G-layers during multiple layering. In situ xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity showed that the incorporation of whole xyloglucan, potentially for wall tightening, began at the inner surface layers S1 and S2 and was retained throughout G-layer development, while the incorporation of xyloglucan heptasaccharide (XXXG) for wall loosening occurred in the primary wall of the expanding zone. We propose that the xyloglucan network is reinforced by XET to form a further connection between wall-bound and secreted xyloglucans in order to withstand the tensile stress created within the cellulose G-layer microfibrils.

  R Kaida , T Kaku , K Baba , M Oyadomari , T Watanabe , K Nishida , T Kanaya , Z Shani , O Shoseyov and T. Hayashi
 

In order to create trees in which cellulose, the most abundant component in biomass, can be enzymatically hydrolyzed highly for the production of bioethanol, we examined the saccharification of xylem from several transgenic poplars, each overexpressing either xyloglucanase, cellulase, xylanase, or galactanase. The level of cellulose degradation achieved by a cellulase preparation was markedly greater in the xylem overexpressing xyloglucanase and much greater in the xylems overexpressing xylanase and cellulase than in the xylem of the wild-type plant. Although a high degree of degradation occurred in all xylems at all loci, the crystalline region of the cellulose microfibrils was highly degraded in the xylem overexpressing xyloglucanase. Since the complex between microfibrils and xyloglucans could be one region that is particularly resistant to cellulose degradation, loosening xyloglucan could facilitate the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in wood.

  R Kaida , S Sugawara , K Negoro , H Maki , T Hayashi and T. S. Kaneko
 

The incorporation of xyloglucan oligosaccharide (XXXG) into the walls of suspension-cultured tobacco cells accelerated cell expansion followed by cell division, changed cell shape from cylindrical to spherical, decreased cell size, and caused cell aggregation. Fluorescent XXXG added to the culture medium was found to be incorporated into the surface of the entire wall, where strong incorporation occurred not only on the surface, but also in the interface walls between cells during cell division. Cell expansion was always greater in the transverse direction than in the longitudinal direction and then, immediately, expansion led to cell division in the presence of XXXG; this process might result in the high level of cell aggregation seen in cultured tobacco cells. We concluded that the integration of this oligosaccharide into the walls could accelerate not only cell expansion, but also cell division in cultured cells.

 
 
 
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