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Articles by R Chen
Total Records ( 7 ) for R Chen
  M. H Bair Merritt , J. M Jennings , R Chen , L Burrell , E McFarlane , L Fuddy and A. K. Duggan
 

Objectives  To estimate whether home visitation beginning after childbirth was associated with changes in average rates of mothers' intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration as well as rates of specific IPV types (physical assault, verbal abuse, sexual assault, and injury) during the 3 years of program implementation and during 3 years of long-term follow-up.

Design  Randomized controlled trial.

Setting  Oahu, Hawaii.

Participants  Six hundred forty-three families with an infant at high risk for child maltreatment born between November 1994 and December 1995.

Intervention  Home visitors provided direct services and linked families to community resources. Home visits were to initially occur weekly and to continue for at least 3 years.

Main Outcome Measures  Women's self-reports of past-year IPV victimization and perpetration using the Conflict Tactics Scale. Blinded research staff conducted maternal interviews following the child's birth and annually when children were aged 1 to 3 years and then 7 to 9 years.

Results  During program implementation, intervention mothers as compared with control mothers reported lower rates of IPV victimization (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-1.01) and significantly lower rates of perpetration (IRR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.96). Considering specific IPV types, intervention women reported significantly lower rates of physical assault victimization (IRR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.71-1.00) and perpetration (IRR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96). During long-term follow-up, rates of overall IPV victimization and perpetration decreased, with nonsignificant between-group differences. Verbal abuse victimization rates (IRR, 1.14, 95% CI, 0.97-1.34) may have increased among intervention mothers.

Conclusion  Early-childhood home visitation may be a promising strategy for reducing IPV.

Trial Registration  clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT00218751

  F Farzan , M. S Barr , A. J Levinson , R Chen , W Wong , P. B Fitzgerald and Z. J. Daskalakis
 

Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have deficits in cortical inhibition. Through the combination of interleaved transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography, we have recently reported on methods in which cortical inhibition can be measured from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a cortical region that is more closely associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, it is possible to index cortical inhibition of specific oscillatory frequencies including the gamma band (30–50 Hz) whose modulation has been related to higher order cortical processing. In this study, we show that patients with schizophrenia have significant deficits of cortical inhibition of gamma oscillations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared to healthy subjects and patients with bipolar disorder, while no deficits are demonstrated in the motor cortex. These results suggest that the lack of inhibition of gamma oscillations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may represent an important frontal neurophysiological deficit, which may be responsible for the spectrum of deficits commonly found in schizophrenia.

  H Fu , J He , F Mei , Q Zhang , Y Hara , S Ryota , R. A Lubet , R Chen , D. R Chen and M. You
 

Green tea has been shown to exhibit cancer-preventive activities in preclinical studies. However, (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) alone was shown to be ineffective in preventing lung tumorigenesis in mice by aerosol administration. In this study, Polyphenon E and Polyphenon E without EGCG were administered by aerosol delivery to A/J mice 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and continuing daily throughout the remainder of the study (20 weeks). An improved aerosol delivery system with a custom-built atomizer, an efficient solvent remove system, and a nose-only exposure chamber was used to provide aerosols with stable size distribution. There were no significant differences in the size distributions of Polyphenon E and Polyphenon E without EGCG. With a relatively low dose level (4.19 mg/kg), Polyphenon E decreased tumor multiplicity by 53%, whereas Polyphenon E without EGCG at the same dose failed to inhibit lung carcinogenesis. These results indicate that aerosol administration can be an effective approach in chemoprevention study, and aerosolized Polyphenon E can significantly inhibit pulmonary adenoma formation and growth in A/J mice. Furthermore, in aerosolized form, EGCG, which is thought to be the most active component of Polyphenon E, has to be present with other tea catechins to show chemopreventive activity on lung tumorigenesis.

  M Han , M. C Serrano , R Lastra Vicente , P Brinez , G Acharya , J. C Huhta , R Chen and K. K. Linask
  Mingda Han, Maria C. Serrano, Rosana Lastra-Vicente, Pilar Brinez, Ganesh Acharya, James C. Huhta, Ren Chen, and Kersti K. Linask

Elevated plasma homocysteine (HCy), which results from folate (folic acid, FA) deficiency, and the mood-stabilizing drug lithium (Li) are both linked to the induction of human congenital heart and neural tube defects. We demonstrated previously that acute administration of Li to pregnant mice on embryonic day (E)6.75 induced cardiac valve defects by potentiating Wnt–β-catenin signaling. We hypothesized that HCy may similarly induce cardiac defects during gastrulation by targeting the Wnt–β-catenin pathway. Because dietary FA supplementation protects from neural tube defects, we sought to determine whether FA also protects the embryonic heart from Li- or HCy-induced birth defects and whether the protection occurs by impacting Wnt signaling. Maternal elevation of HCy or Li on E6.75 induced defective heart and placental function on E15.5, as identified non-invasively using echocardiography. This functional analysis of HCy-exposed mouse hearts revealed defects in tricuspid and semilunar valves, together with altered myocardial thickness. A smaller embryo and placental size was observed in the treated groups. FA supplementation ameliorates the observed developmental errors in the Li- or HCy-exposed mouse embryos and normalized heart function. Molecular analysis of gene expression within the avian cardiogenic crescent determined that Li, HCy or Wnt3A suppress Wnt-modulated Hex (also known as Hhex) and Islet-1 (also known as Isl1) expression, and that FA protects from the gene misexpression that is induced by all three factors. Furthermore, myoinositol with FA synergistically enhances the protective effect. Although the specific molecular epigenetic control mechanisms remain to be defined, it appears that Li or HCy induction and FA protection of cardiac defects involve intimate control of the canonical Wnt pathway at a crucial time preceding, and during, early heart organogenesis.

  T Wysocki , T. R Nansel , G. N Holmbeck , R Chen , L Laffel , B. J Anderson , J Weissberg Benchell and for the Steering Committee of the Family Management of Childhood Diabetes Study
 

Objective Collaboration between youths with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their adult caregivers may be central to effective management of T1D. This article includes analysis of cross-sectional associations between T1D outcomes (adherence, glycemic control, quality of life, family conflict, depression, and self-efficacy) and scores on the Collaborative Parent Involvement (CPI) Scale obtained from 309 youths with T1D about their primary and secondary caregivers. Methods MANCOVA, controlling for age, evaluated associations of diabetes outcomes with youths’ CPI scores for each caregiver. Results Diabetes outcomes were poor when both caregivers obtained CPI scores below the median. Diabetes outcomes were more strongly associated with CPI scores of primary, rather than secondary, caregivers. CPI scores at or above the median among primary caregivers were associated with more favorable status on multiple youth outcomes. When both caregivers obtained CPI scores at or above the median, children had significantly lower HbA1C and parents retained more responsibility for diabetes care. Conclusions Higher collaborative involvement, particularly among primary caregivers, was associated with favorable status along a variety of diabetes outcomes. Longitudinal studies could confirm if youth–parent collaboration is a justifiable intervention target.

  J Weissberg Benchell , T Nansel , G Holmbeck , R Chen , B Anderson , T Wysocki , L Laffel and For the Steering Committee of the Family Management of Diabetes Study
 

Objective To evaluate associations among parent–child behaviors and generic and diabetes-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a multi-site sample of youth with type 1 diabetes. Method One hundred and twenty-one youth and their primary caregivers completed measures of parent–child behaviors, child HRQOL, and participated in an observed family interaction task. Results Diabetes-specific parent–child variables were associated significantly with both generic and diabetes-specific HRQOL above and beyond the contributions of demographic and generic parent-child variables, accounting for between 13% and 31% of the variance in HRQOL. Diabetes-specific family conflict and negative diabetes-specific family communication were associated with lower HRQOL. Collaborative parent involvement in diabetes care was associated with higher levels of HRQOL. Conclusions Interventions that target diabetes-specific family interactions will be beneficial to the quality of life of children with type 1 diabetes.

  Z. L Chu , C Carroll , R Chen , J Alfonso , V Gutierrez , H He , A Lucman , C Xing , K Sebring , J Zhou , B Wagner , D Unett , R. M Jones , D. P Behan and J. Leonard
 

G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is largely restricted to pancreatic insulin-producing β-cells and intestinal glucagon-like peptide-1-producing L-cells. Synthetic agonists of this receptor elicit glucose-dependent release of these endocrine factors, thereby enhancing glycemic control. Oleoylethanolamide also activates GPR119, but it remains unclear whether endogenous production of this lipid modulates GPR119 activity under normal or dysglycemic conditions. We show here that a relatively diverse set of lipid amides activate GPR119. Among these, the endovallinoid N-oleoyldopamine (OLDA) stimulated cAMP accumulation in GPR119-transfected cells as effectively as oleoylethanolamide and the previously described synthetic agonist AR231453. None of these lipid amides increased cAMP in control-transfected cells or in cells transfected with a number of other G protein-coupled receptors. OLDA stimulated both cAMP accumulation and insulin release in HIT-T15 cells, which express GPR119 endogenously, and in GPR119-transfected RIN-5F cells. Oral administration of OLDA to C57bl/6 mice elicited significant improvement in glucose tolerance, whereas GPR119-deficient mice were essentially unresponsive. OLDA also acutely elevated plasma gastric inhibitory peptide levels, a known hallmark of GPR119 activation. OLDA represents a possible paracrine modulator of GPR119 in pancreatic islets, where markers of dopamine synthesis correlated well with GPR119 expression. However, no such correlation was seen in the colon. Collectively, these studies indicate that multiple, distinct classes of lipid amides, acting via GPR119, may be important modulators of glucose homeostasis.

 
 
 
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