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Articles by R Basu
Total Records ( 5 ) for R Basu
  M Campioni , G Toffolo , R Basu , R. A Rizza and C. Cobelli
 

In this article, a first aim was to develop a minimal modeling approach to noninvasively assess hepatic insulin extraction in 204 healthy subjects studied with a standard meal by coupling the already available meal C-peptide minimal model with a new insulin model. The ingredients of this model are posthepatic IDR, which in turn is described in terms of pancreatic ISR and hepatic insulin extraction HE, and a linear monocompartmental model of insulin kinetics. Even if ISR is provided by the C-peptide minimal model, the simultaneous assessment of HE and insulin kinetics is critical, since compensations may arise between parameters describing these two processes. Therefore, as a second aim of this study, a method was developed to predict standard values of insulin kinetic parameters in an individual on the basis of the individual's anthropometric characteristics. The statistical analysis, based on linear regression of insulin kinetic parameters estimated from IM-IVGTT data performed on the same subjects, demonstrated that insulin kinetic parameters can be accurately predicted from age and body surface area. Once kinetic parameters of the new insulin model were fixed to these values, HE profile and indexes during a meal were reliably estimated in each individual, indicating a significant suppression during the meal since the overall index of HE, equal to 60 ± 1% in the basal state, is reduced to 40 ± 1% during a meal. However, standard parameters provide an approximation of the individual one; thus, the third aim was to define the impact on estimated indexes of using standard instead of individually estimated values. Our results showed that the 25% uncertainty affecting as an average insulin kinetic parameters of an individual, when they are predicted from age and body surface area, translates into a similar relative uncertainty in the individual's hepatic insulin extraction indexes.

  D. S Edgerton , R Basu , C. J Ramnanan , T. D Farmer , D Neal , M Scott , P Jacobson , R. A Rizza and A. D. Cherrington
 

Inactive cortisone is converted to active cortisol within the liver by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11β-HSD1), and impaired regulation of this process may be related to increased hepatic glucose production (HGP) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute 11β-HSD1 inhibition on HGP and fat metabolism during insulin deficiency. Sixteen conscious, 42-h-fasted, lean, healthy dogs were studied. Somatostatin was infused to create insulin deficiency, and the animals were treated with a specific 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (compound 531) or placebo for 5 h. 11β-HSD1 inhibition completely suppressed hepatic cortisol production, and this attenuated the increase in HGP that occurred during insulin deficiency. PEPCK and glucose-6-phosphatase expression were decreased when 11β-HSD1 was inhibited, but gluconeogenic flux was unchanged, implying an effect on glycogenolysis. Since inhibition of hepatic cortisol production reduces HGP during insulin deficiency, 11β-HSD1 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of excess glucose production that occurs in diabetes.

  V Kandalam , R Basu , T Abraham , X Wang , P. D Soloway , D. M Jaworski , G. Y Oudit and Z. Kassiri
 

Rationale: Myocardial infarction (MI) results in remodeling of the myocardium and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are critical regulators of ECM integrity via inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). TIMP2 is highly expressed in the heart and is the only TIMP that, in addition to inhibiting MMPs, is required for cell surface activation of pro-MMP2. Hence, it is difficult to predict the function of TIMP2 as protective (MMP-inhibiting) or harmful (MMP-activating) in heart disease.

Objective: We examined the role of TIMP2 in the cardiac response to MI.

Methods and Results: MI was induced in 11- to 12-week-old male TIMP2–/– and age-matched wild-type mice. Cardiac function was monitored by echocardiography at 1 and 4 weeks post-MI. ECM fibrillar structure was visualized using second harmonic generation and multiphoton imaging of unfixed/unstained hearts. Molecular analyses were performed at 3 days and 1 week post-MI on flash-frozen infarct, periinfarct, and noninfarct tissue. Membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP levels and activity were measured in membrane protein fractions. TIMP2–/–-MI mice exhibited a 25% greater infarct expansion, markedly exacerbated left ventricular dilation (by 12%) and dysfunction (by 30%), and more severe inflammation compared to wild-type MI mice. Adverse ECM remodeling was detected by reduced density and enhanced disarray of fibrillar collagen in TIMP2–/–-MI compared to wild-type MI hearts. TIMP2 deficiency completely abrogated MMP2 activation but markedly increased collagenase activity, particularly MT1-MMP activity post-MI.

Conclusions: The MMP-inhibitory function of TIMP2 is a key determinant of post-MI myocardial remodeling primarily because of its inhibitory action on MT1-MMP. TIMP2 replenishment in diseased myocardium could provide a potential therapy in reducing or preventing disease progression.

  D Guo , Z Kassiri , R Basu , F. L Chow , V Kandalam , F Damilano , W Liang , S Izumo , E Hirsch , J. M Penninger , P. H Backx and G. Y. Oudit
  Rationale:

Mechanotransduction and the response to biomechanical stress is a fundamental response in heart disease. Loss of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), the isoform linked to G protein–coupled receptor signaling, results in increased myocardial contractility, but the response to pressure overload is controversial.

Objective:

To characterize molecular and cellular responses of the PI3K knockout (KO) mice to biomechanical stress.

Methods and Results:

In response to pressure overload, PI3KKO mice deteriorated at an accelerated rate compared with wild-type mice despite increased basal myocardial contractility. These functional responses were associated with compromised phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3. In contrast, isolated single cardiomyocytes from banded PI3KKO mice maintained their hypercontractility, suggesting compromised interaction with the extracellular matrix as the primary defect in the banded PI3KKO mice. β-Adrenergic stimulation increased cAMP levels with increased phosphorylation of CREB, leading to increased expression of cAMP-responsive matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP2, MT1-MMP, and MMP13 in cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts. Loss of PI3K resulted in increased cAMP levels with increased expression of MMP2, MT1-MMP, and MMP13 and increased MMP2 activation and collagenase activity in response to biomechanical stress. Selective loss of N-cadherin from the adhesion complexes in the PI3KKO mice resulted in reduced cell adhesion. The β-blocker propranolol prevented the upregulation of MMPs, whereas MMP inhibition prevented the adverse remodeling with both therapies, preventing the functional deterioration in banded PI3KKO mice. In banded wild-type mice, long-term propranolol prevented the adverse remodeling and systolic dysfunction with preservation of the N-cadherin levels.

Conclusions:

The enhanced propensity to develop heart failure in the PI3KKO mice is attributable to a cAMP-dependent upregulation of MMP expression and activity and disorganization of the N-cadherin/β-catenin cell adhesion complex. β-Blocker therapy prevents these changes thereby providing a novel mechanism of action for these drugs.

  Z Kassiri , J Zhong , D Guo , R Basu , X Wang , P. P Liu , J. W Scholey , J. M Penninger and G. Y. Oudit
 

Background— Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a monocarboxypeptidase that metabolizes Ang II into Ang 1-7, thereby functioning as a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. We hypothesized that ACE2 deficiency may compromise the cardiac response to myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods and Results— In response to MI (induced by left anterior descending artery ligation), there was a persistent increase in ACE2 protein in the infarct zone in wild-type mice, whereas loss of ACE2 enhanced the susceptibility to MI, with increased mortality, infarct expansion, and adverse ventricular remodeling characterized by ventricular dilation and systolic dysfunction. In ACE2-deficient hearts, elevated myocardial levels of Ang II and decreased levels of Ang 1-7 in the infarct-related zone was associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species. ACE2 deficiency leads to increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 levels with MMP2 activation in the infarct and peri-infarct regions, as well as increased gelatinase activity leading to a disrupted extracellular matrix structure after MI. Loss of ACE2 also leads to increased neutrophilic infiltration in the infarct and peri-infarct regions, resulting in upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, interferon-, interleukin-6, and the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 signaling pathways. Treatment of Ace2/y-MI mice with irbesartan, an AT1 receptor blocker, reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, infarct size, MMP activation, and myocardial inflammation, ultimately resulting in improved post-MI ventricular function.

Conclusions— We conclude that loss of ACE2 facilitates adverse post-MI ventricular remodeling by potentiation of Ang II effects by means of the AT1 receptors, and supplementing ACE2 can be a potential therapy for ischemic heart disease.

 
 
 
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