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Articles by Qing Zhang
Total Records ( 4 ) for Qing Zhang
  Qing Zhang , Ada Solidar , Nicholas J. Murgolo , Wynand Alkema , Wei Ding , Peter M. Groenen , Jonathan R. Greene , Eric L. Gustafson , Jan Klomp , Ellie D. Norris , Ping Qiu and Gerald J. Wyckoff
  We examined the synonymous vs. nonsynonymous substitution rate ratios (Ka/Ks, aka evolutionary rate) between human and chimpanzee for 166 successful drug target genes and compared them with a larger (10,298) set of genes representative of average human-chimpanzee evolutionary rates. We found that evolutionary rates differ significantly between successfully marketed drug targets and the broader set of genes (p<0.005 by ANOVA). Evolutionary rates were lower for successfully marketed drug targets versus non-target genes (0.311 versus 0.497). This rate discrepancy demonstrates that more conserved genes, even within protein families such as GPCRs (successful target GPCRs 0.391 versus non-target GPCRs 0.855) and protein kinases (0.131 versus 0.337), are better targets for traditional small molecule drug development than less strongly constrained genes. Evolutionary rate, therefore, is a factor that could be taken into account when selecting candidate target genes for drug discovery, in addition to the biochemical properties of the proteins these genes encode. We suggest therefore, that links be established between identified disease-causal or -associated genes and genes that are suitable targets for traditional small molecule pharmaceutical development.
  Wenli Lu , Kun Song , Yuan Wang , Qing Zhang , Wen Li , Huanli Jiao , Guolin Wang and Guowei Huang
 

Objective

To investigate the nature of the relationships between uric acid and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components.

Methods

Body mass index, waist circumference, serum uric acid, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, and blood pressure were measured in 13,811 subjects aged between 18 and 85 years of age. Two structural equation models (SEMs) were used to test a hypothesis regarding the linking roles of uric acid in the occurrence of MetS components in male and female separately.

Results

The findings of the SEM demonstrated that increased uric acid level was associated with fasting glucose (beta = 0.221, P < .001), blood pressure (beta = 0.158, P < .001), and lipid profiles (beta = 0.391, P < .001) in women. Increased uric acid level was associated with decreased fasting glucose (beta = −0.071, P < .001) and increased lipid profiles (beta = 0.352, P < .001) in men. The association was stronger between uric acid and lipid profiles than those between uric acid and other MetS components.

Conclusion

By using SEM, we were able to confirm the intimate relationships between uric acid and MetS components, particularly in women. The associations between uric acid and MetS components were gender specific, and the nature of such association requires further exploration.

  Erika Assarsson , Huynh -Hoa Bui , John Sidney , Qing Zhang , Jean Glenn , Carla Oseroff , Innocent N. Mbawuike , Jeff Alexander , Mark J. Newman , Howard Grey and Alessandro Sette
  Continuing antigenic drift allows influenza viruses to escape antibody-mediated recognition, and as a consequence, the vaccine currently in use needs to be altered annually. Highly conserved epitopes recognized by effector T cells may represent an alternative approach for the generation of a more universal influenza virus vaccine. Relatively few highly conserved epitopes are currently known in humans, and relatively few epitopes have been identified from proteins other than hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein. This prompted us to perform a study aimed at identifying a set of human T-cell epitopes that would provide broad coverage against different virus strains and subtypes. To provide coverage across different ethnicities, seven different HLA supertypes were considered. More than 4,000 peptides were selected from a panel of 23 influenza A virus strains based on predicted high-affinity binding to HLA class I or class II and high conservancy levels. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 44 healthy human blood donors were tested for reactivity against HLA-matched peptides by using gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assays. Interestingly, we found that PB1 was the major target for both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. The 54 nonredundant epitopes (38 class I and 16 class II) identified herein provided high coverage among different ethnicities, were conserved in the majority of the strains analyzed, and were consistently recognized in multiple individuals. These results enable further functional studies of T-cell responses during influenza virus infection and provide a potential base for the development of a universal influenza vaccine.
  Qing Zhang and Minho Lee
  This paper proposes a novel emotion understanding system based on brain activity and “GIST” to categorize emotions reflected by natural scenes. According to the intensified relationship of human emotion and the brain activity, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) are used to analyze and classify emotional states stimulated by a natural scene. The “GIST” is used to extract the visual low-level features, which are used as input signals to a classifier for obtaining the high-level emotional gist of a natural scene. Mean opinion scores are used for teaching signals of the classifier. Considering the way a human brain is responding to the same visual stimuli, a machine will be able to extract the emotional features of natural scenes using the “GIST” and the EEG signals, judge the emotions reflected by the nature scenes and achieve interaction with a human in terms of emotional sharing through the EEG signals. The experimental results demonstrate that positive and negative emotions can be distinguished.
 
 
 
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