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Articles by Qiang Zhang
Total Records ( 10 ) for Qiang Zhang
  Zhenling Cui , Xinping Chen , Yuxin Miao , Fusuo Zhang , Qinping Sun , Jackie Schroder , Hailin Zhang , Junliang Li , Liwei Shi , Jiufei Xu , Youliang Ye , Chunsheng Liu , Zhiping Yang , Qiang Zhang , Shaomin Huang and Dejun Bao
  The improved soil Nmin–based N management is a promising approach to precision N management, which determines the optimum side-dress N rates based on N target values and measured soil nitrate N content in the root soil layer at different growth stages. A total of 148 on-farm N-response experiments, in seven key summer maize (Zea mays L.) production regions of North China Plain (NCP) from 2003 to 2005, were conducted to evaluate the Nmin–based N management compared to traditional farmer's N practices. The recommended N rates based on the improved soil Nmin method were not significantly different ( <=31 kg N ha–1) from those determined by yield response curves (n = 13). The average N rate determined with the soil Nmin method (157 kg N ha–1) was significantly lower than farmer's practice (263 kg N ha–1), while maize grain yield was 0.4 Mg ha–1 higher than farmer's N practice (8.5 Mg ha–1) across all sites (n = 148). As a result, the improved soil Nmin–based N management significantly increased net economic gains by $202 ha–1, reduced residual nitrate N content and N losses by 44 kg N ha–1 and 65 kg N ha–1, respectively, and improved recovery N efficiency, agronomic N efficiency and N partial factor productivity by 16%, 6 kg kg–1 and 36 kg kg–1, respectively, compared with farmer's N practice. We conclude that the improved soil Nmin–based N management can be applied for summer maize production in NCP for improved N use efficiency and reduced environmental contamination.
  Zhenling Cui , Xinping Chen , Yuxin Miao , Fei Li , Fusuo Zhang , Junliang Li , Youliang Ye , Zhiping Yang , Qiang Zhang and Chunsheng Liu
  High soil nitrate-N accumulation has been observed in North China Plain (NCP), but it was seldom considered as a N source in N management due to the lack of data on crop response to soil nitrate-N accumulation. A total of 124 on-farm N-response experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2006 in seven key winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production regions of NCP to evaluate wheat yield response to residual soil nitrate-N. High soil nitrate-N accumulation ( ≥172 kg N ha–1 in 90 cm soil depth) was observed during wheat growing season. Compared with 165 nitrate-N ha–1 in 0 to 90 soil layer before sowing, added fertilizer N did not increase wheat yield under 262 kg nitrate-N ha–1 condition, but increased residual nitrate-N and N losses and reduced recovery N efficiency (P < 0.05). Wheat yield response to residual soil nitrate-N could be fitted by a linear plus plateau model, and calculated minimum soil nitrate-N content for maximum grain yield was 211 kg N ha–1 (R2 = 0.31) before sowing across all 223 zero-N plots in 124 sites. When two growth periods (before and after shooting stage) were analyzed separately, the coefficient of determination between yield and soil nitrate-N increased significantly. We conclude that winter wheat yield response to added N fertilizer was unlikely if soil nitrate-N content exceeded 72 (0–30 cm soil depth) and 175 kg N ha–1 (0–90 cm soil depth) before sowing and shooting stage, respectively. According to these thresholds, 55% and 37% of farmer`s fields did not need to apply N fertilizer before sowing and at shooting stage, respectively.
  Kui Fu Chen and Qiang Zhang
  The ideal linear hysteretic damper possesses a non-causal impulse response precursor (IRP). This has been proved in theory and confirmed numerically. Yet the mathematical conciseness of this model is so attractive that several modifications have been tried to restrain this pitfall. In this paper, the modification proposed by Bishop et al., the band-limited hysteretic damper was studied in detail. The non-causal and causal parts of the unitary impulse response function h(t) were investigated systematically by the residue theorem. The closed form of h(0) was derived, then its property was studied numerically. The main conclusions are as follows: Firstly, the Bishop’s model is still non-causal. The asymptotic rate of the IRP is of an order t−1 as time approaches negative infinity. Secondly, the IRP is not monotonic, but a damped sinusoidal wave. The frequency of this wave relates to the lower bound of the band-limited damper. Thirdly, h(0) can be zero by appropriately combining the lower and upper bounds of the pass band.
  Heng Yu Hu , Dongfeng Zhao and Qiang Zhang
  Residual oil gasification is a novel approach to extend the life of old oil reservoir using microbes to transform petroleum hydrocarbons into methane which can be exploited or stored in situ. The eutrophic river water could be used to promote the oil degradation and producing methane. When the trace element was added, the methane yield and petroleum hydrocarbons degradation rate was better. The best trace element CoCl2·6H2O concentration was 1.6 mg L‾1, NiCl2·6H2O and Na2MoO4 were 0.34 and 2.4 mg L‾1, respectively. Meanwhile, the methane yield and oil degradation rate were effected by pressure. Microbes grow better in low pressure condition. The eutrophic river water and trace element have the additive effect on petroleum hydrocarbons degradation. So the eutrophic river water turned useful resource.
  Hengyu Hu , Dongfeng Zhao and Qiang Zhang
  Oil degradation bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis) were isolated and identified by using quantitative PCR-DGGE technology. The Bacillus licheniformis quantity was evaluated by its DNA content and its DNA content was measured by amplification of the DNA target gene. So the specific primers and probe of target gene were designed. Then, the difference was analyzed between using single Bacillus licheniformis bacteria and using Bacillus licheniformis compounded with other bacteria to degrade oil. The results showed that after 60 days cultivation, the oil degradation rate was only 5.6% by using single Bacillus licheniformis bacteria and DNA content of the single bacteria is 1.3×106 copies. When the single bacteria were mixed with other bacteria, the oil degradation rate was 30.7% and DNA content of the Bacillus licheniformis bacteria was 3.3×106. But, when the Bacillus licheniformis bacteria were removed, the oil degradation rate of mix bacteria was 21.3% and the DNA content of Bacillus licheniformis bacteria was 0. It showed the primers and the probe had good specificity. The oil degradation rate and DNA content of single Bacillus licheniformis bacteria were both 0 in the sterilization control group. Compared with traditional technology, the quantitative PCR-DGGE technology could accurately analyze the role of single bacteria in compound bacteria community.
  Fanyong Meng , Jinxian Zhao and Qiang Zhang
  In the study, a general case of fuzzy games with fuzzy payoffs is studied, where the player participation levels are real numbers in [0, 1] and their payoffs are fuzzy numbers. The Banzhaf value for this kind of fuzzy games is researched. Two axiomatic systems for the given Banzhaf value are introduced which are obtained by extending the crisp case. As we can see, the given Banzhaf value can be used in all kinds of fuzzy games with fuzzy payoffs when the researching scope is limited in the given domain. Some properties are discussed which coincide with the traditional games.
  Jianke Wang , Qiang Zhang , Lei Wu and Wenhui Wang
  The P12A gene fragments and 3C gene fragments of O/China 99 strains of foot and mouth virus were ligated into bilateral tandem Vaccinia virus promoter P7.5 which could initiate expression of EGFP gene and the expression box p-EGFP-N1-P7.5-P12A-3C was constructed. The expression box was ligated to the linear vector pUC119-TK after KpnI enzyme digestion by blunt end ligation to obtain the recombinant plasmid pUC119-TK-EGFP-P7.5-P12A-3C. The homologous recombination took place in the BHK-21 cell between the recombinant plasmid and the Capripox virus attenuated strain by deleted TK gene. The PCR identification, the Western blot analysis and immunological experiment on mice were carried out. The results showed that the recombinant strain could be subcultured in BHK-21 cell for 10 passages, expressing P12A-3C gene which was 2900 bp by sequence analysis, the Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expressed protein of recombinant plasmid pUC119-TK-EGFP-N1-P7.5-P12A-3C in BHK-21 cells infected GTPV AV41 could be specifically recognized by the hyperimmune serum to type O FMDV. Immunity assay showed that the expression protein had immunogenicity in mice. All the results showed that the Goat Pox virus attenuated strain which could express P12A-3C gene of type O FMDV was obtained.
  Jinfeng Miao , Qiaoxiu Wang , Jian Lin , Qiang Zhang and Qian Yang
  The aim of this study was to determine if intramammary infusion of recombinant expression vectors and subsequent analyses of whey proteins can be used to evaluate plasmid function and to elucidate their mechanisms of improving milk production. On the day of the experiment, 6 goats were infused with 100 μg g-1 and of recombinant vectors pcGH-20 or pIN in both right and left glands. At intervals of 0 (control group), 1, 3 and 7 days Post Infusion (PI), milk was collected. Whey from each time point was compared to controls by 2-Dimensional gel Electrophoresis (2-DE) with colloidal coomassie staining and matrix-assisted desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. In the pIN infusion group, 19 protein spots with a 2 fold or greater change from the controls were obtained. In the pcGH-20 infusion group 14 protein spots were produced. The proteins were sorted into 5 functional classes based on Conserved Domain Database (CDD) comparison. Some spots corresponded to the major milk proteins. Some are involved in host defense/immune functioning, others in metabolism and still others are hormone and hormone-like factor. The remaining proteins serve other functions. The upregulation of some important metabolism related proteins (including hormone and hormone-like factors) indicates that mammary epithelial cells respond to recombinant vector infusion. The data also show that different plasmids induce different whey profiles. Further, development of this model could be used to evaluate the function of recombinant vectors and to elucidate their potential mechanism of action prior to the production of transgenic animals.
  Hai Yu , Rong- Hong Hua , Qiang Zhang , Tian- Qiang Liu , Hui- Li Liu , Guo- Xin Li and Guang- Zhi Tong
  Pigs are susceptible to both human and avian influenza viruses and have been proposed to be intermediate hosts, or mixing vessels, for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses through reassortment or adaptation to the mammalian host. In this study, we summarize and report for the first time the coexistence of wholly human-like H3N2 viruses, double-reassortant H3N2 viruses, and triple-reassortant H3N2 viruses in pigs in China by analyzing the eight genes of swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses found in China from 1970 to 2006. In 1970, the first wholly human-like H3N2 (Hong Kong/68-like) viruses were isolated from pigs in Taiwan, and then in the next years Victoria/75-like, Sydney/97-like, New York/99-like, and Moscow/99-like swine H3N2 viruses were regularly isolated in China. In the 1980s, two triple-reassortant viruses were isolated from pigs. Recently, the double-reassortant viruses containing genes from the human (HA and NA) and avian (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS) lineages and the triple-reassortant viruses containing genes from the human (HA and NA), classical swine (NP), and avian (PB2, PB1, PA, M, and NS) lineages emerged in pigs in China. The coexistence of wholly human-like and reassortant viruses provides further evidence that pigs serve as intermediate hosts, or mixing vessels, and emphasizes the importance of reinforcing swine influenza virus surveillance in China.
  Qiang Zhang , Mei Hong , Peng Duan , Zui Pan , Jianjie Ma and Guofeng You
  Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) mediates the body disposition of a diverse array of environmental toxins and clinically important drugs. Therefore, understanding the regulation of this transporter has profound clinical significance. We previously demonstrate that OAT1 activity was down-regulated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC), kinetically revealed as a decrease in the maximum transport velocity Vmax without significant change in the substrate affinity Km of the transporter. In the current study, we showed that OAT1 constitutively internalized from and recycled back to the plasma membrane, and PKC activation accelerated OAT1 internalization without affecting OAT1 recycling. We further showed that treatment of OAT1-expressing cells with concanavalin A, depletion of K+ from the cells, or transfection of dominant negative mutants of dynamin-2 or Eps15 into the cells, all of which block the clathrin-dependent endocytotic pathway, significantly blocked constitutive and PKC-regulated OAT1 internalization. We finally showed that OAT1 colocalized with transferrin, a marker for clathrin-dependent endocytosis, at the cell surface and in the EEA1-positive early endosomes. Together, our findings demonstrated for the first time that (i) OAT1 constitutively traffics between plasma membrane and recycling endosomes, (ii) PKC activation down-regulates OAT1 activity by altering already existent OAT1 trafficking, and (iii) OAT1 internalization occurs partly through a dynamin- and clathrin-dependent pathway.
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