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Articles by Q Wang
Total Records ( 23 ) for Q Wang
  Q Wang , M Liu , X Li , L Chen and H. Tang
 

Kazrin has recently been identified as a functional protein that is involved in cell–cell junctions and in signal transduction. Here, we identified a new isoform, Kazrin F, which is 518 aa in length and has 97 aa unique at the N-terminus. Knockdown of Kazrin F using siRNA caused cell apoptosis and a marked decrease in cell viability measured by MTT and TUNEL assays. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Kazrin F interacts with ARC (apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain) and Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein). Co-localization of Kazrin F with ARC and Bax in the cytoplasm was determined by immunofluorescence analysis. These results suggested that Kazrin F might play an important role in regulating cellular apoptosis by interacting with ARC and Bax.

  Q Wang , J Li , J Gu , B Huang , Y Zhao , D Zheng , Y Ding and L. Zeng
 

The green tea constituent, (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has chemopreventive and anticancer effects. This is partially because of the selective ability of EGCG to induce apoptosis and death in cancer cells without affecting normal cells. In the present study, the activity of EGCG against the myeloma cell line, KM3, was examined. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, that the treatment of the KM3 cell line with EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis, and there is a synergistic effect when EGCG and bortezomib are combined. Further experiments showed that this effect involves the NF-B pathway. EGCG inhibits the expression of the P65 mRNA and P65/pP65 protein, meanwhile it downregulates pIB expression and upregulates IB expression. EGCG also activates caspase-3, -8, cleaved caspase-9, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and subsequent apoptosis. These findings provided experimental evidence for efficacy of EGCG alone or in combination with bortezomib in multiple myeloma therapy.

  Z Zhu , Y Yan , Q Wang , J Qian and J. Ge
 

The serum proteins creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin T are classic biomarkers of cardiac ischemic damage in clinical practice, which can sensitively detect myocardial necrosis, while other two serum proteins, ischemia-modified albumin and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), have been recently identified as novel biomarkers of myocardial ischemia. In this study, the four biomarkers were detected in sera from 44 eligible patients with suspected coronary heart disease (CHD) before and after treadmill exercise test (TET), electrocardiogram (ECG) was measured during TET (TET-ECG) and invasive examination of coronary angiography (CAG), which is the ‘gold standard’ of CHD diagnosis, was also performed. For CAG, 25 patients were positive and 19 were negative, whereas for TET-ECG the numbers were 19 and 25, respectively. Among these four biomarkers, the NT-proBNP level in CAG positive group was much higher than those in CAG negative group both before and after TET, with statistical significance before TET (P = 0.008). Furthermore, according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the serum biomarker NT-proBNP showed diagnostic effect of CHD and its cutoff value was 67 pg/ml, thus 30 of the patients in this study were NT-proBNP positive and 14 were negative. And it was found that NT-proBNP obviously enhanced the sensitivity of examinations whether analyzed alone or in combination with TET-ECG. More importantly, all the patients who were negative in both NT-proBNP and TET-ECG tests turned out to be CAG negative, which means that the combination of these two non-invasive examinations might take the place of invasive examination of CAG for CHD diagnosis. Further studies with more patients are warranted to validate the findings in this paper.

  Y Zhao , J Liu , Q Hong , C Yang , L Chen , Y Chen , Q Wang , K Zhao and W. Jin
 

Overexpression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) in cancer remains one of the major causes for the failure of chemotherapy. In the present study, we found that MyoD and PEA3 could activate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in SGC7901 cells. Knockdown of MyoD and PEA3 attenuated MDR1 expression and increased the sensitivity of multidrug resistant cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs that were transported by P-gp in SGC7901/VCR cells. MyoD or PEA3 could bind to the E-box and PEA3 sites on the MDR1 promoter and activate its transcription. The regulation of MDR1 expression by MyoD and PEA3 may provide potential ways to overcome MDR in cancer treatment.

  C Xia , Q Tong , Q Wang , Z Tang , L Qi , S Chi , M Zhang , X Wang , H Li and G. Xu
  Background

The in vitro directive of the European Union requires traceability to the international recommended reference procedures. The application of the reference procedures is necessary in order to evaluate the accuracy of -glutamyltransferase (GGT) assays of routine measurement systems in China.

Methods

Five frozen patient-pooled serum samples were assigned values by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) reference procedure in order to evaluate the traceability of the results of GGT catalytic activity from six homogeneous systems. One of the serum samples was used to calibrate seven non-homogeneous systems.

Results

All of the homogeneous systems, except the Dade system (Dade Bering Inc, IL, USA), achieved traceability within the measurement range. The Roche and Hitachi systems were better than the other systems. After calibration, the variance of the non-homogeneous systems decreased dramatically from between 14.50% and 25.23% to between 1.25% and 3.09% and the bias decreased from between –11.4% and –4.1% to between 0.5% and 3.5%.

Conclusion

Manufacturers in China should ensure that their calibration systems correspond to the IFCC reference procedures. Fresh frozen pooled patient serum assigned by reference laboratories can be used to calibrate non-homogeneous systems in order to achieve traceability.

  H. S Yao , Q Wang , W. J Wang and C. P. Ruan
 

Objective  To evaluate the hemostatic effects and safety of thyroidectomy performed using the LigaSure vessel-sealing device (Valleylab, Boulder, Colorado) or the conventional vessel ligation.

Data Sources  The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Elsevier, SpringerLink, Ovid, and Cochrane Library electronic databases as well as the LigaSure manufacturer's Web site were searched for studies published between 1996 and 2008. No language restrictions were applied.

Study Selection  Prospective, controlled clinical trials, both randomized and nonrandomized, comparing the hemostatic effects and safety of thyroidectomy using LigaSure and conventional vessel ligation were selected.

Data Extraction  Data regarding operative parameters, duration of the operation, amount of intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay, and any postoperative complications were entered and analyzed using dedicated software from the Cochrane Collaboration.

Data Synthesis  Four randomized and 5 nonrandomized trials that met selection criteria reported data from 927 patients, of whom 467 (50.4%) underwent LigaSure and 460 (49.6%) underwent conventional thyroidectomy. Operative duration (weighted mean difference [WMD], –11.97 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], –16.42 to –7.53 minutes) was significantly reduced with LigaSure thyroidectomy (P < .001). When LigaSure was used, operative time reductions of 20.32 minutes (95% CI, –33.86 to –6.79 minutes) for total thyroidectomy (P = .003) and 21.74 minutes (–38.32 to –5.16 minutes) for subtotal thyroidectomy (P = .01) were also confirmed with subgroup analysis. However, differences in the amount of intraoperative blood loss (WMD, –25.13 mL; 95% CI, –68.45 to 18.18 mL; P = .26), length of hospital stay (WMD, –0.08 days; 95% CI, –0.23 to 0.08 days; P = .31), and postoperative complication rates (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.61-1.04; P = .65) were not statistically significant for LigaSure vs conventional thyroidectomy.

Conclusions  The LigaSure technique may provide a safe, effective, and fast alternative to conventional vessel ligation in thyroidectomy and may result in a significant reduction in operative duration. However, it may not confer any advantage over conventional thyroidectomy in terms of the amount of intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complication rates.

  A Hoque , C. B Ambrosone , C Till , P. J Goodman , C Tangen , A Kristal , S Lucia , Q Wang , M Kappil , I Thompson , A. W Hsing , H Parnes and R. M. Santella
 

To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in prostate cancer risk, we analyzed serum levels of protein carbonyl groups in 1,808 prostate cancer cases and 1,805 controls, nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial that found finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk. There were no significant differences in protein carbonyl levels in baseline samples between those later diagnosed with prostate cancer and those without at the end of study biopsy. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the 4th quartile of protein carbonyl level for the combined, placebo, and finasteride arms were 1.03 (95% CI, 0.85-1.24), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.69-1.12), and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.94-1.71), respectively. There were no significant associations between carbonyl level and risk when analyzing high-grade and low-grade disease separately, nor did finasteride affect protein oxidation levels. The results of this large nested case-control study do not support the hypothesis that oxidative stress, at least as measured by protein carbonyl level, plays a role in prostate cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 3(4); 478–83. ©2010 AACR.

  Q Wang , A. h Wang , H. s Tan , N. n Feng , Y. j Ye , X. q Feng , G Liu , Y. x Zheng and Z. l. Xia
 

The base excision repair (BER) pathway is important in repairing DNA damage incurred from occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD). This study examines the relationship between inherited polymorphisms of the BER pathway (x-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln, T-77C, ADPRT Val762Ala, MGMT Leu84Phe and APE1 Asp148Glu) and chromosomal damage in BD-exposed workers, using the cytokinesis-blocked (CB) micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes of 166 workers occupationally exposed to BD and 41 non-exposed healthy individuals. The MN frequency of exposed workers (3.39 ± 2.42) was higher than that of the non-exposed groups (1.48 ± 1.26) (P < 0.01). Workers receiving greater than median annual BD exposures had higher MN values than lower exposed workers: frequency ratio (FR) of 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–1.53; P < 0.05. Workers who carried the following genotypes were associated with greater frequency of MN (P < 0.05 for each comparison, unless specified): XRCC1 -77 C/T genotype (FR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04–1.57; reference C/C), ADPRT 762 Ala/Ala (FR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.17–2.03; P < 0.01), XRCC1 194 Arg/Trp (FR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.87–1.27; reference, Arg/Arg), XRCC1 280 Arg/His (FR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.10–2.42; reference, Arg/Arg), XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln and Gln/Gln genotypes (FR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03–1.53 and FR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.03–1.49; reference Arg/Arg, respectively). As XRCC1 polymorphisms were linked, workers carrying the XRCC1 (-77)-(194)-(280)-(399) diplotype, TCGA/TCGA, had a higher MN frequency compared with individuals carrying the wild-type CCGG/CCGG (FR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.02–2.41; P < 0.05). In conclusion, CB-MN is a sensitive index of early damage among BD-exposed workers. In workers exposed to BD, multiple BER polymorphisms and a XRCC1 haplotype were associated with differential levels of chromosome damage.

  Q Wang , J. L. C Lin , B. E Reinking , H. Z Feng , F. C Chan , C. I Lin , J. P Jin , E. A Gustafson Wagner , T. D Scholz , B Yang and J. J. C. Lin
 

Rationale: The Xin repeat–containing proteins mXin and mXinβ localize to the intercalated disc of mouse heart and are implicated in cardiac development and function. The mXin directly interacts with β-catenin, p120-catenin, and actin filaments. Ablation of mXin results in adult late-onset cardiomyopathy with conduction defects. An upregulation of the mXinβ in mXin-deficient hearts suggests a partial compensation.

Objective: The essential roles of mXinβ in cardiac development and intercalated disc maturation were investigated.

Methods and Results: Ablation of mXinβ led to abnormal heart shape, ventricular septal defects, severe growth retardation, and postnatal lethality with no upregulation of the mXin. Postnatal upregulation of mXinβ in wild-type hearts, as well as altered apoptosis and proliferation in mXinβ-null hearts, suggests that mXinβ is required for postnatal heart remodeling. The mXinβ-null hearts exhibited a misorganized myocardium as detected by histological and electron microscopic studies and an impaired diastolic function, as suggested by echocardiography and a delay in switching off the slow skeletal troponin I. Loss of mXinβ resulted in the failure of forming mature intercalated discs and the mislocalization of mXin and N-cadherin. The mXinβ-null hearts showed upregulation of active Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and downregulation of the activities of Rac1, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, protein kinase B, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2.

Conclusions: These findings identify not only an essential role of mXinβ in the intercalated disc maturation but also mechanisms of mXinβ modulating N-cadherin–mediated adhesion signaling and its crosstalk signaling for postnatal heart growth and animal survival.

  H Ding , Y Xu , X Wang , Q Wang , L Zhang , Y Tu , J Yan , W Wang , R Hui , C. Y Wang and D. W. Wang
 

Background— Recent studies on genome-wide association have identified common variants on chromosome 9p21 associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Given that ischemic stroke and CAD share several aspects of etiology and pathogenesis, we investigated the association of variants on chromosome 9p21 with ischemic stroke and CAD in the Chinese Han population by capturing the majority of diversity in this locus using haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

Methods and Results— We performed a shared control-cases study using 15 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 2 previously reported susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms spanning 58 kb of the chromosome of 9p21 in a set of 558 patients with ischemic stroke, 510 patients with CAD, and 557 unaffected participants (controls) in the Chinese Han population. The association analyses were performed at both SNP and haplotype levels. We further verified our findings in an independent cohort of 442 ischemic stroke cases and 502 control subjects. In the first study, rs2383206, rs1004638, and rs10757278 in block 3 were significantly associated with CAD but not with ischemic stroke independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in additive model (P=0.002 to 0.0001, q=0.026 to 0.004). Analysis from all blocks revealed that haplotype profiles of block 3 on 9p21 were significantly different between shared control and cases of CAD (P=1.3x10–10, q=1.2x10–9) and ischemic stroke (P=1.7x10–6, q=7.7x10–6). In the expanded second case-control study, block 3 on 9p21 remained associated with ischemic stroke (P=2.6x10–4, q=6.3x10–4).

Conclusions— Our results suggest for the first time that 9p21 is a shared susceptibility locus, strongly for CAD and weakly for ischemic stroke, in a Chinese Han population.

  X Lu , Q Wang , G Hu , C Van Poznak , M Fleisher , M Reiss , J Massague and Y. Kang
 

Bone metastasis is mediated by complex interactions between tumor cells and resident stromal cells in the bone microenvironment. The functions of metalloproteinases in organ-specific metastasis remain poorly defined despite their well-appreciated role in matrix degradation and tumor invasion. Here, we show a mechanism whereby two distinct metalloproteinases, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS1) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1), orchestrate a paracrine signaling cascade to modulate the bone microenvironment in favor of osteoclastogenesis and bone metastasis. Proteolytic release of membrane-bound epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factors, including Amphiregulin (AREG), heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) from tumor cells suppress the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in osteoblasts and subsequently potentiate osteoclast differentiation. EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibitors block osteolytic bone metastasis by targeting EGFR signaling in bone stromal cells. Furthermore, elevated MMP1 and ADAMTS1 expression is associated with increased risk of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. This study established MMP1 and ADAMTS1 in tumor cells, as well as EGFR signaling in osteoblasts, as promising therapeutic targets for inhibiting bone metastasis of breast cancer.

  S Ju , Y Ge , H Qiu , B Lu , Y Qiu , J Fu , G Liu , Q Wang , Y Hu , Y Shu and X. Zhang
 

Dendritic cells (DCs) are responsible for the initiation of immune responses. Our study demonstrates a new pathway for generating a large quantity of stimulatory monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) from human monocytes using anti-4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) mAb to trigger reverse signaling. The anti-4-1BBL-driven Mo-DCs (DCs-4-1BBL) not only express higher levels of CD86, CD83 and HLA-DR, when compared with the Mo-DCs matured by tumor necrosis factor , but also exhibit a unique phenotype that expresses lower levels of PD-L1. High levels of GM-CSF, M-CSF and Flt3 ligand (FL) were found in the anti-4-1BBL-differentiation culture. Neutralizing M-CSF, GM-CSF and FL inhibited Mo-DC proliferation stimulated by anti-4-1BBL mAb, suggesting that M-CSF, GM-CSF and FL are involved in cell proliferation stimulated by anti-4-1BBL. Further analysis of the DCs-4-1BBL showed increased secretion of Th1-type cytokines IL-12 and IFN- and decreased secretion of IL-10. DCs-4-1BBL induced much stronger proliferative responses in the mixed lymphocyte reaction assay when compared with DCs derived by GM-CSF. Moreover, DCs-4-1BBL preferentially induced Th1 responses. We have further demonstrated that anti-4-1BBL antibody stimulated nuclear translocation of NF-B from the cytoplasm in monocytes, suggesting that reverse signaling by 4-1BBL is likely responsible for mediating DC differentiation. Collectively, we have found that reverse signaling of 4-1BBL promotes the differentiation of potent Th1-inducing DCs from human monocytes.

  Z. A Rasheed , J Yang , Q Wang , J Kowalski , I Freed , C Murter , S. M Hong , J. B Koorstra , N. V Rajeshkumar , X He , M Goggins , C Iacobuzio Donahue , D. M Berman , D Laheru , A Jimeno , M Hidalgo , A Maitra and W. Matsui
  Background

Specific populations of highly tumorigenic cells are thought to exist in many human tumors, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, the clinical significance of these tumor-initiating (ie, cancer stem) cells remains unclear. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity can identify tumor-initiating cells and normal stem cells from several human tissues. We examined the prognostic significance and functional features of ALDH expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Methods

ALDH expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 269 primary surgical specimens of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and examined for association with clinical outcomes and in paired primary tumors and metastatic lesions from eight pancreatic cancer patients who had participated in a rapid autopsy program. The clonogenic growth potential of ALDH-positive pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells was assessed in vitro by a colony formation assay and by tumor growth in immunodeficient mice (10–14 mice per group). Mesenchymal features of ALDH-positive pancreatic tumor cells were examined by using quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and an in vitro cell invasion assay. Gene expression levels and the invasive potential of ADLH-positive pancreatic cancer cells relative to the bulk cell population were examined by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and an in vitro invasion assays, respectively. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

ALDH-positive tumor cells were detected in 90 of the 269 primary surgical specimens, and their presence was associated with worse survival (median survival for patients with ALDH-positive vs ALDH-negative tumors: 14 vs 18 months, hazard ratio of death = 1.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.68, P = .05). Six (75%) of the eight patients with matched primary and metastatic tumor samples had ALDH-negative primary tumors, and in four (67%) of these six patients, the matched metastatic lesions (located in liver and lung) contained ALDH-positive cells. ALDH-positive cells were approximately five- to 11-fold more clonogenic in vitro and in vivo compared with unsorted or ALHD-negative cells, expressed genes consistent with a mesenchymal state, and had in vitro migratory and invasive potentials that were threefold greater than those of unsorted cells.

Conclusions

ALDH expression marks pancreatic cancer cells that have stem cell and mesenchymal features. The enhanced clonogenic growth and migratory properties of ALDH-positive pancreatic cancer cells suggest that they play a key role in the development of metastatic disease that negatively affects the overall survival of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  H Wang , D Zhang , W Wu , J Zhang , D Guo , Q Wang , T Jing , C Xu , X Bian and K. Yang
 

Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) has been reported to be overexpressed in the development and progression of many tumor types. SRC-3 has been detected in several lung cancer cell lines, but its expression and clinical significance in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. In this study, 48 NSCLC tissues were collected and tissue microarrays were performed. The expression of SRC-3 was examined using nickel-intensified IHC. The results showed that of these 48 cases, 18 (37.5%) exhibited high levels of SRC-3 immunoreactivity, 23 (47.9%) exhibited moderate levels of SRC-3 immunoreactivity, and 7 (14.6%) were negative; thus, the total frequency of SRC-3 overexpression was 85.4% (41/48). This SRC-3 overexpression frequency was similar to the overexpression frequency observed for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (82.1% vs 90%) and for metastasis and non-metastasis patients (84.6% vs 85.7%). Data analysis demonstrated a significantly higher overexpression frequency in male patients compared with that in female patients (88.6% vs 76.9%). However, female patients tended to have higher expression levels of SRC-3, as measured by immunoreactivity, than male patients. These results demonstrate a high frequency of SRC-3 overexpression in NSCLC with a gender difference, suggesting that there is a specific role for SRC-3 in the pathogenesis of NSCLC. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:1121–1127, 2010)

  S Li , Q Wang , Y Wang , X Chen and Z. Wang
 

It is well established that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces the cytoskeleton reorganization and cell migration through two major signaling cascades: phospholipase C-1 (PLC-1) and Rho GTPases. However, little is known about the cross talk between PLC-1 and Rho GTPases. Here we showed that PLC-1 forms a complex with Rac1 in response to EGF. This interaction is direct and mediated by PLC-1 Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and Rac1 106PNTP109 motif. This interaction is critical for EGF-induced Rac1 activation in vivo, and PLC-1 SH3 domain is actually a potent and specific Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor in vitro. We have also demonstrated that the interaction between PLC-1 SH3 domain and Rac1 play a significant role in EGF-induced F-actin formation and cell migration. We conclude that PLC-1 and Rac1 coregulate EGF-induced cell cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration by a direct functional interaction.

  D. E Frigo , A. B Sherk , B. M Wittmann , J. D Norris , Q Wang , J. D Joseph , A. P Toner , M Brown and D. P. McDonnell
 

Advanced prostate cancers preferentially metastasize to bone, suggesting that this tissue produces factors that provide a suitable microenvironment for prostate cancer cells. Recently, it has become clear that even in antiandrogen-resistant cancers, the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling axis is required for prostate cancer progression. Therefore, we hypothesized that AR may be involved in the regulation of pathways that are responsible for the homing of prostate cancer cells to select microenvironments. In support of this hypothesis, we have determined that chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4), the receptor for the chemokine CXCL12, is up-regulated in prostate cancer cells in response to androgens. Given that the levels of CXCL12 are elevated at sites of known prostate cancer metastases such as bone, these results suggest that androgens may influence prostate cancer metastasis. Specifically, we demonstrate that androgens increase the levels of both CXCR4 mRNA and functional protein in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Importantly, androgens enhanced the migration of LNCaP cells toward a CXCL12 gradient, an effect that could be blocked by the specific CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. Interestingly, CXCR4 is not directly regulated by androgens but rather is positively up-regulated by Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5), a transcription factor that we have shown to be an early, direct target of AR. Further, KLF5 is both required and sufficient for androgen-mediated CXCR4 expression and migration toward CXCL12. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that AR can utilize the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis through induction of KLF5 expression to promote prostate cancer progression and highlight the potential utility of CXCR4 antagonists as prostate cancer therapeutics.

  Q Wang , A. M Ratchford , M. M. Y Chi , E Schoeller , A Frolova , T Schedl and K. H. Moley
 

The adverse effects of maternal diabetes on embryo development and pregnancy outcomes have recently been shown to occur as early as the one-cell zygote stage. The hypothesis of this study was that maternally inherited mitochondria in oocytes from diabetic mice are abnormal and thus responsible in part for this latency of developmental compromise. In ovulated oocytes from diabetic mice, transmission electron microscopy revealed an alteration in mitochondrial ultrastructure, and the quantitative analysis of mitochondrial DNA copy number demonstrated an increase. The levels of ATP and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites in diabetic oocytes were markedly reduced compared with controls, suggesting a mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction. Abnormal distribution of mitochondria within maturing oocytes also was seen in diabetic mice. Furthermore, oocytes from diabetic mice displayed a higher frequency of spindle defects and chromosome misalignment in meiosis, resulting in increased aneuploidy rates in ovulated oocytes. Collectively, our results suggest that maternal diabetes results in oocyte defects that are transmitted to the fetus by two routes: first, meiotic spindle and chromatin defects result in nondisjunction leading to embryonic aneuploidy; second, structural and functional abnormalities of oocyte mitochondria, through maternal transmission, provide the embryo with a dysfunctional complement of mitochondria that may be propagated during embryogenesis.

  D. R Herbert , J. Q Yang , S. P Hogan , K Groschwitz , M Khodoun , A Munitz , T Orekov , C Perkins , Q Wang , F Brombacher , J. F Urban , M. E Rothenberg and F. D. Finkelman
 

Th2 cells drive protective immunity against most parasitic helminths, but few mechanisms have been demonstrated that facilitate pathogen clearance. We show that IL-4 and IL-13 protect against intestinal lumen-dwelling worms primarily by inducing intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to differentiate into goblet cells that secrete resistin-like molecule (RELM) β. RELM-β is essential for normal spontaneous expulsion and IL-4–induced expulsion of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus, which both live in the intestinal lumen, but it does not contribute to immunity against Trichinella spiralis, which lives within IEC. RELM-β is nontoxic for H. polygyrus in vitro but directly inhibits the ability of worms to feed on host tissues during infection. This decreases H. polygyrus adenosine triphosphate content and fecundity. Importantly, RELM-β–driven immunity does not require T or B cells, alternative macrophage activation, or increased gut permeability. Thus, we demonstrate a novel mechanism for host protection at the mucosal interface that explains how stimulation of epithelial cells by IL-4 and IL-13 contributes to protection against parasitic helminthes that dwell in the intestinal lumen.

  C. N Harvey , M Esmail , Q Wang , A. I Brooks , R Zachow and M. Uzumcu
 

Ovarian granulosa cells play a central role in steroidogenesis, which is critical for female reproduction. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) promotes cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated signaling to regulate granulosa cell steroidogenesis. We have shown previously that 2,2-bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) inhibits FSH- and dibutyryl cAMP-stimulated steroidogenesis and affects the messenger RNA levels of steroidogenic pathway enzymes in rat granulosa cells. However, HPTE showed a differential effect in FSH- and cAMP-stimulated cells in that HPTE more completely blocked FSH- when compared to cAMP-driven steroidogenesis. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of HPTE on global gene expression profiles in untreated granulosa cells and those challenged with FSH or cAMP. Granulosa cells from immature rats were cultured with 0, 1, 5, or 10µM HPTE in the presence or absence of either 3 ng FSH/ml or 1mM cAMP for 48 h. Total RNA was isolated for real-time quantitative PCR and microarray analysis using the GeneChip Rat Genome 230 2.0 and ArrayAssist Microarray Suite. An investigation of changes in gene expression across all HPTE treatments showed that HPTE altered more genes in FSH- (~670 genes) than in cAMP-stimulated cells (~366 genes). Analysis confirmed that HPTE more effectively inhibited FSH- than cAMP-induced steroid pathway gene expression and steroidogenesis. Furthermore, expression patterns of novel genes regulating signal transduction, transport, cell cycle, adhesion, differentiation, motility and growth, apoptosis, development, and metabolism were all altered by HPTE. This study further established that HPTE exerts differential effects within the granulosa cell steroidogenic pathway and revealed that these effects include broader changes in gene expression.

 
 
 
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