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Articles by Pichad Khejornsart
Total Records ( 6 ) for Pichad Khejornsart
  Kanda Lokaewmanee , Wuttiphong Phakdeekul , Suparp Kanyacome , Warinmad Kedthongma , Rujikarn Sirival , Puvadol Doydee , Anusorn Kullawong , Theerayut Juntanam and Pichad Khejornsart

Background and Objective: Herb residues, residues from herbal medicine processing in pharmaceutical plants, were evaluated for their nutrient quality when added to broiler feed. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, economic return, carcass quality and ammonia nitrogen of broiler chickens fed three herb residues. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 7-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were allocated to 4 treatments with 4 replications for 5 weeks. All birds were raised under the same conditions. The dietary treatment groups were the commercial diet for the control (CT) and the commercial diet supplemented with Zingiber cassumunar (ZC) residues, Kaempferia galangal (KG) residues or Curcuma aromatic (CA) residues (CA) at 3 g kg1 feed. Results: The CA group displayed a better body weight gain (BWG), average daily gain (ADG) and salable net return (SBR) than the other treatment groups (p<0.01). The ZC, KG and CA groups had higher productive indices (PI) than the control group (p<0.01), while the ZC, KG and CA groups had lower feed conversion ratios (FCR) compared to the control group (p<0.01). Moreover, the CA group had significantly increased abdominal fat, (p<0.05) but the KG group had significantly increased total visceral organ weight (p<0.05). Shear force value of the breast from KG chickens was higher than that of the other treatment groups (p<0.05) but the shear force value of the thigh from the ZC, KG and CA chickens was higher than that of the control group (p<0.01). The CA group showed lower (p<0.01) moisture in the broiler feces than the control group. Fecal ammonia nitrogen had no significant differences. Conclusion: CA at 0.3 g kg1 diet may be used as a potential growth enhancer for broilers in an open house from 7-42 days.

  Anusorn Cherdthong , Metha Wanapat , Phongthorn Kongmun , Ruangyote Pilajun and Pichad Khejornsart
  Four rumen-fistulated, male swamp buffalo were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of the urea-treated rice straw to concentrate ratio (R:C) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibilities, microbial protein synthesis and cellulolytic bacterial population. Animals were fed R:C of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75, respectively. Results showed that digestibility of nutrients were significantly affected by R:C especially those of OM and fiber. However, digestibility of CP, ruminal NH3-N and plasma urea N were similar among treatments (p>0.05) whereas ruminal pH was decreased significantly (p<0.01) when concentrate ratio was increased. Total VFA concentrations and C3 were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 50:50 of R:C supplementation (p<0.01). Total viable bacteria, proteolytic bacteria and bacteria cell count were not altered among treatments (p>0.05) whereas amylolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and fungal zoospore were significantly different (p<0.01), responding to a change in proportion of R:C. Moreover, using of real-time PCR technique provided that feeding of a 100% roughage remarkably increased these three cellulolytic bacteria numbers up to 3.54x109 copies mL-1 for F. succinogenes, 7.38x107 copies mL-1 for R. Flavefaciens and 5.80x106 copies mL-1 for R. albus in rumen digesta, respectively. It is most notable that F. succinogenes were the highest in population in the rumen of swamp buffalo. In addition, efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis were enriched by R:C supplementation, especially at the ratio of 50:50 (p<0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of R:C at 50:50 improved digestibilities of nutrients, ruminal ecology and microbial protein synthesis efficiency.
  Pichad Khejornsart and Metha Wanapat
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of rumen anaerobic fungi and methanogenic archaea on ruminal fermentation in swamp buffalo. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes with average 369 kg of body weight were used. All animals were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments; factor A = two sources of roughage (rice straw and 2% urea+2% lime treated rice straw), factor B = two levels of urea in concentrate mixture (0 and 4%). Roughages were given ad libitum together with 3 g kg-1 BW of concentrate. It was found that voluntary feed intake, the digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, acetate and propionate concentration were significantly increased (p<0.05) by treated rice straw while NH3-N, BUN and propionic acid concentration were increased by both factors of treated rice straw and 4% urea in concentrate. The real-time PCR quantification of F. succinogenes and R. albus population and anaerobic fungi were greater (p<0.05) but the population of R. flavefaciens, protozoa and methanogenic bacteria were reduced (p>0.05) as influenced by treated rice straw and urea level. Animal consumed treated rice straw was shown in more diverts in phylogenetic relationship. No change in rumen methanogenic bacteria diversity and relative change with fungi population. In conclusion, the combined use of urea-lime treated rice straw and fed with concentrate (4% urea) could improve rumen ecology, rumen fermentation efficiency and increase anaerobic fungi. The results from this study suggest that feeding with urea-lime treated rice straw more rumen fermentation efficiency though shift fungi and methanogenic population.
  Pichad Khejornsart and Metha Wanapat
  In vitro gas production was measured to investigate associative effects of untreated and chemically treated Rice Straw (RS). The RS was treated with NaOH, urea or lime and evaluated the nutritive value of treated rice straw using in vitro gas production. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation and the analyzed to describe the kinetics of gas production. Total nucleic acid was extracted from ruminal content in vial of each treatment and contribution of fungal population was estimated by using PCR-DGGE technique. It was found that the treatment with NaOH, urea and lime increased (p<0.05) gas production at 24 h, potential GP and rate constant of GP were highest for NaOH, follow by 2% urea+2% lime, 3% urea, 3% lime, 3.5% urea+3.5% lime and lowest for 5% urea treated rice straw (p<0.05). Ammonia nitrogen was increased belong to the increase of urea level treating rice straw. It was higher in 5% urea treatment and 3% urea-lime treatment and 2% urea-lime treatment. Total VFA and acetate and propionate concentrations were higher for 3% urea and 2% urea-lime as compared with other treatments (p<0.05). All treated rice straw shown similar in diversity of fungi except 2% sodium treated rice straw. Other treated rice straw was found similar in the diversity of fungi with 6 bands per each lane. The results from this study suggest that 2% urea plus lime treated rice straw can use as good roughage for ruminants to improve rumen fermentation, digestibility and low cost and treatments rice straw were shift the number species of rumen fungi.
  Pichad Khejornsart , Panuwat Khampeerawat and Teerayoot Jantanam
  This study was conducted to determine the effects of sodium bicarbonate and dry yeast in TMR with cassava peel on intake, nutrients digestibility and rumen fermentation of finishing lamb. Eight crossbreed lambs (Santa Inêsx Dorper x Indigenous) were randomly assigned into a 2×2 factorial arrangement in replicated Latin square design. They were given a total mixed ration as control diet (NA) at ad libitum daily feeding/lamb supplemented with 0.5% of Sodium Bicarbonate (SB) or 0.2% of dry Yeast (Y) or combination (Y/SB) during a 21-d experimental period. The results showed that dry matter intake and dry matter intake per body weight was significantly higher in Y and Y/SB than control and SB (p<0.05). Digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and NDF of Y and Y/SB were significantly higher than control (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N and total volatile fatty acid components of Y group were significantly higher than those control (p>0.05). It is suggested that supplementation of Y in diets containing high level of cassava peel did not affect voluntary feed intake of lamb but it could buffer the rumen pH and improving digestibility of nutrients and bacterial growth.
  Sittisak Khampa , Sarunyu Chuelong , Saowalak Kosonkittiumporn and Pichad Khejornsart
  Four, one-year old of dairy heifers, weighing at 200±10 kg were selected. Cows were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to study supplementation levels of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip (YFCC) replaced concentrate on rumen ecology, cost production and average daily gain. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of concentrate: YFCC ratio at 100:0; T2 = supplementation of concentrate:YFCC ratio at 75:25; T3 = supplementation of concentrate:YFCC ratio at 50:50; T4 = supplementation of concentrate:YFCC ratio at 25:75, respectively. The animals were offered the treatment concentrate at 1.5 %BW and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that feed intake and average daily gain cost productions were significantly different among treatments especially affected the rice straw intake and average daily gain were higher in dairy heifers receiving T3 than T4, T2 and T1. In contrast, the cost productions was lower in dairy heifers receiving T3 than T4, T2 and T1. However, the rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by levels of yeast fermented cassava chip supplementation. These results suggest that supplementation of yeast fermented cassava chip could highest replace at 75% of concentrate in dairy heifers.
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