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Articles by Philip M. Jardine
Total Records ( 3 ) for Philip M. Jardine
  Erick Cardenas , Wei-Min Wu , Mary Beth Leigh , Jack Carley , Sue Carroll , Terry Gentry , Jian Luo , David Watson , Baohua Gu , Matthew Ginder-Vogel , Peter K. Kitanidis , Philip M. Jardine , Jizhong Zhou , Craig S. Criddle , Terence L. Marsh and James M. Tiedje
  Microbial enumeration, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and chemical analysis were used to evaluate the in situ biological reduction and immobilization of uranium(VI) in a long-term experiment (more than 2 years) conducted at a highly uranium-contaminated site (up to 60 mg/liter and 800 mg/kg solids) of the U.S. Department of Energy in Oak Ridge, TN. Bioreduction was achieved by conditioning groundwater above ground and then stimulating growth of denitrifying, Fe(III)-reducing, and sulfate-reducing bacteria in situ through weekly injection of ethanol into the subsurface. After nearly 2 years of intermittent injection of ethanol, aqueous U levels fell below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for drinking water and groundwater (<30 µg/liter or 0.126 µM). Sediment microbial communities from the treatment zone were compared with those from a control well without biostimulation. Most-probable-number estimations indicated that microorganisms implicated in bioremediation accumulated in the sediments of the treatment zone but were either absent or in very low numbers in an untreated control area. Organisms belonging to genera known to include U(VI) reducers were detected, including Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, Desulfosporosinus, and Acidovorax spp. The predominant sulfate-reducing bacterial species were Desulfovibrio spp., while the iron reducers were represented by Ferribacterium spp. and Geothrix spp. Diversity-based clustering revealed differences between treated and untreated zones and also within samples of the treated area. Spatial differences in community structure within the treatment zone were likely related to the hydraulic pathway and to electron donor metabolism during biostimulation.
  Douglas W. Kilgour , Rebecca B. Moseley , Mark O. Barnett , Kaye S. Savage and Philip M. Jardine
  A study of the potential negative consequences of adding phosphate (P)-based fertilizers as amendments to immobilize lead (Pb) in contaminated soils was conducted. Lead-contaminated firing range soils also contained elevated concentrations of antimony (Sb), a common Pb hardening agent, and some arsenic (As) of unknown (possibly background) origin. After amending the soils with triple superphosphate, a relatively soluble P source, column leaching experiments revealed elevated concentrations of Sb, As, and Pb in the leachate, reflecting an initial spike in soluble Pb and a particularly dramatic increase in Sb and As mobility. Minimal As, Sb, and Pb leaching was observed during column tests performed on non-amended control soils. In vitro extractions tests were performed to assess changes in Pb, As, and Sb bioaccessibility on P amendment. Lead bioaccessibility was systematically lowered with increasing P dosage, but there was much less of an effect on As and Sb bioaccessibility than on mobility. Our results indicate that although P amendments may aid in lowering the bioaccessibility of soil-bound Pb, it may also produce an initial increase in Pb mobility and a significant release of Sb and As from the soil, dramatically increasing their mobility and to a lesser extent their bioavailability.
  Rebecca A. Moseley , Mark O. Barnett , Melanie A. Stewart , Tonia L. Mehlhorn , Philip M. Jardine , Matthew Ginder-Vogel and Scott Fendorf
  In–situ stabilization using phosphate (P) amendments, such as P-based fertilizers and rock, are a potentially cost-effective and minimally disruptive alternative for stabilizing Pb in soils. We examined the effect of time (0–365 d), in vitro extraction pH (1.5 vs. 2.3), and dosage of three P-based amendments on the bioaccessibility (as a surrogate for oral bioavailability) of Pb in 10 soils from U.S. Department of Defense facilities. Initial untreated soil bioaccessibility consistently exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency default value of 60% relative bioavailability, with higher bioaccessibility consistently observed at an in vitro extraction pH of 1.5 vs. 2.3. Although P-based amendments statistically (P < 0.05) reduced bioaccessibility in many instances, with reductions dependent on the amendment and dosage, large amendment dosages (approximately 20–25% by mass to yield 5% P by mass) were required to reduce average bioaccessibility by approximately 25%. For most amendment combinations, reductions continued to occur for periods up to 1 yr, indicating that the observed reductions were not merely experimental artifacts of the in vitro extraction procedure. Although our results indicated that reductions in Pb bioaccessibility with P amendments are technically feasible, relatively large amendment masses were required to achieve relatively modest reductions in bioaccessibility. The cost and potential environmental implications of adding such large amounts of P may limit the practicality of in situ immobilization for some Pb-contaminated soils, industrial and firing range soils in particular.
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