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Articles by Philip John Kanu
Total Records ( 4 ) for Philip John Kanu
  Philip John Kanu
  An analytical comparison of the biochemical composition of Black Sesame (BS) and White Sesame (WS) produced in China was carried out. The aim of the study was to analyze the black and white sesame seeds grown in China and compare their biochemical properties. Various approved methods that have been reported by researchers were used to do the analysis. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectra (GC/MS) system was used to identify and quantify the fatty acids. Nicolet 360Ft-IR spectrometer was used to determine the Infrared (IR) spectra of WS and BS. Protein for WS was 22.20%; BS 20.82%; fat WS was 52.61% and BS 48.40%; moisture was higher in WS than BS but ash was higher in BS than WS and the amount was significantly different at (p<0.05); carbohydrate was higher in BS than WS. The two colors were good sources of minerals. Vitamins vary in quantity for the two colors, the same was also observed for the sugars. The fatty acids, oleic and linoleic, were the major unsaturated fatty acids while palmitic and stearic were the main saturated fatty acids significantly observed in both samples. Both colors were higher in essential amino acids with the exception of lysine. The IR spectra of WS and BS showed different peak structures and both possess different functional groups at different regions of their spectra. The overall results indicated that WS and BS have different biochemical properties.
  Philip John Kanu , Jestina Baby Kanu and Huiming Zhou
  The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical composition of Bennimix Baby Food (BBF): a traditional weaning food produced in Sierra Leone and compared with cerelac which is similar to BBF in appearance. Results revealed that BBF was lower in protein content which was 14.1 g, but higher in carbohydrate, fat, fibre, ash, moisture and energy as compared to cerelac in the following amounts, 73.3, 6.3, 2.8, 2.1, 3.6 g and 478 cal, respectively. Vitamins for BBF were very small in quantity. Cerelac has significant (p<0.05) higher minerals than BBF and for the % protein calories it was 13.7%. The amino acids, BBF was lower in the age category of 0-1 year as stipulated by FAO/WHO expert report but higher in the second category (2-5 years). Some of the amino acids like Leucine, lysine threonine, methionine + cystine were 80, 60, 44 and 54 (mg gN-1), respectively. The pasting properties of BBF were not significantly different (p<0.05) with cerelac. Some functional properties, BBF revealed good attributes as compared to cerelac and the difference was significant (p<0.05). Sensory qualities, flavour and taste were rated higher than cerelac however the others were rated lower than cerelac. BBF was successfully compared with Cerelac.
  Philip John Kanu , Jestina Baby Kanu , Edward H. Sandy , Joseph B.A. Kandeh , Philip M.P. Mornya and Zhou Huiming
  Sesame Protein Hydrolysate (SPH) was prepared from defatted sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) flour (DSF) after screening with different proteases. The proteases under different conditions showed varied effects on the protein recovery process. For example, Alcalase® 2.4 L produced the highest degree of protein recovery (96.68%) at 60°C and pH 8 followed by Flavourzyme (69.76%). However, at 50°C and pH 7, the highest protein recovery was noted for Flavourzyme (79.28%) followed by Alcalase 2.4 L (77.62%). The hydrolysis conditions (Temperature T, pH, Enzyme/Substrate E/S, time t) were engineered to optimize the degree of hydrolysis (DH) with the process studied using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The DH ranged from 1.19 to 18.8% while the solubility of the Defatted Sesame Protein Isolate (DSPI) increased with increase in pH. The SPH was observed to be a better emulsifier with significantly higher foaming properties, water and oil capacities compared to the untreated DSF. Nonetheless, the stability of the resulting foam diminished on standing over time. The Sesame protein hydrolysate obtained using Alcalase was noted to have better functional attributes compared to that obtained using Flavourzyme.
  Philip John Kanu , Hui Ming Zhou , Jestina Baby Kanu , Ke-Xue Zhu , Ke-Rui Zhu and Haifeng Qian
  The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of pH, temperature, extraction time and flour/water ratio, monitored the combined effects of the above parameters through the use of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) during sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) protein extraction, analyzed the highest protein recovered from the extraction for it amino acid profile. All the four parameters have influence on the extraction process of sesame seeds protein when they were varied individually and combined. The maximum recovery of protein during the extraction process was 94% at 12, 45°C, 45 min and 6/100 g mL-1 (w/v) of pH, temperature, time and ratio of sesame flour to water, respectively. The recovery was described by the model relationship given as Recovery (R) (extraction) = 51.33 + 2.75A + 1.25B + 2.00C - 3.58D +8.02A2 + 2.27B2 + 4.15C2 - 0.48D2 + 4.50AB + 0.000AC-1.00AD-1.00BC -1.00BD -0.75CD. The model showed good fit, since the R2 indicated that 96.47 % of the variability within the range of values studied could be explained by the model. The analysis of amino acids revealed the essential amino acids present in the highest extract were methionine, lysine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, histidine, phenylalanine and tryptophan as 3.6, 2.6, 3.4, 7.1, 3.6, 2.2, 4.6 and 2.1, respectively. The extraction process was successfully done as RSM provided a good method in extracting protein from sesame seeds and obtains the optimum extraction conditions with manageable experimental runs and thus saved time and resources.
 
 
 
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