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Articles by Peter J. Snyder
Total Records ( 3 ) for Peter J. Snyder
  Kathryn V. Papp , Stephen J. Walsh and Peter J. Snyder
  Background Research on the potential effects of cognitive intervention in healthy elderly has been motivated by (1) the apparent effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation in Alzheimer`s disease (AD) patients; (2) the face validity of bolstering skills eventually burdened by disease; (3) interest in low-cost/noninvasive methods of preventing or delaying onset of disease; (4) the epidemiologic research suggesting protective effects of educational attainment and lifelong participation in cognitively stimulating activities; (5) the burgeoning industry of brain training products and requisite media attention; and (6) the aging world population.Methods We performed a systematic review with meta-analytic techniques to analyze randomized controlled trials of cognitive interventions in healthy elderly.Results The weighted mean effect size (Cohen`s d) of cognitive intervention across all outcome measures after training was .16 (95% confidence interval, .138 to .186). The existing literature is limited by a lack of consensus on what constitutes the most effective type of cognitive training, insufficient follow-up times, a lack of matched active controls, and few outcome measures showing changes in daily functioning, global cognitive skills, or progression to early AD.Conclusions Our review was limited by a small, heterogeneous, and methodologically limited literature. Within this literature, we found no evidence that structured cognitive intervention programs delay or slow progression to AD in healthy elderly. Further work that accounts for the limitations of past efforts and subsequent clear and unbiased reporting to the public of the state and progress of research on this topic will help the elderly make informed decisions about a range of potential preventive lifestyle measures including cognitive intervention.
  Margaret A. Calciano , Weiyin Zhou , Peter J. Snyder and Richard Einstein
  Background: Increasing cholinergic activity has been the primary mechanism for treating dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease. However, the effectiveness of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) is still widely debated. The identification of specific biomarkers capable of identifying patients more likely to respond to these treatments could potentially provide specific evidence to clearly address this controversy through patient stratification. The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of discovering biomarkers specific for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: Peripheral blood was collected from a cohort of patients treated with different ChEIs. Total RNA was isolated and profiled on the human Genome-Wide SpliceArray (GWSA) to test the feasibility of discriminating the different treatment subgroups of subjects based on the expression patterns generated from the Genome-Wide SpliceArray. Results: Specific expression differences were identified for the various treatment groups that lead to a clear separation between patients treated with ChEIs versus naïve patients when Principal Component Analysis was performed on probe sets selected for differential expression. In addition, specific probe sets were identified to be dependent on the inhibitor used among the treated patients. Conclusions: Distinct separation between non-treated, galantamine, donepezil, and rivastigmine-treated patients was clearly identified based on small sets of expression probes. The ability to identify drug-specific treatment expression differences strengthens the potential for using peripheral gene signatures for the identification of individuals responding to drug treatment.
  Mark E. Schmidt , Eric Siemers , Peter J. Snyder , William Z. Potter , Patricia Cole and Holly Soares
  The Industry Scientific Advisory Board (ISAB) consists of representatives from the private companies and nonprofit foundations participating as sponsors of Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Currently 21 companies are represented including pharmaceutical, imaging, and biotech concerns, and two foundations including the Alzheimer’s Association. ISAB members meet regularly by teleconference or face-to-face at ADNI meetings and participate in the ADNI Core groups, all administered and organized by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. ISAB ‘deliverables’ include dissemination of information to sponsors, assisting in scientific review of protocols and results, initiation and consideration of “add-on” studies and analyses, and generation of consensus positions on industry priorities and concerns. Although positioned as an advisory body, ISAB also actively contributes to the ADNI mission of identifying biomarkers of disease progression.
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