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Articles by Pear Mohammad
Total Records ( 6 ) for Pear Mohammad
  Pear Mohammad , Masaya Shiraishi and Touru Manabe
  The formation, elongation and periclinal growths, and morphology of roots in trifoliate orange grafted with satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsu Wase) were studied under different levels of culture solution salinity. Root formation and root elongation were highest in no-salt-control treatment which decreased as the culture solution salinity was increased up to 50 mM. Both stelar and overall diameters gradually increased towards the root base under control. While these diameters became considerably higher near the root tip and increased slightly towards the root base under saline solutions. This increasing trend was drastically slowed by higher doses of salinity. The ratio of stelar to overall diameters fairly increased towards the root base under control but tended to be similar throughout the root tip in saline solutions. The continued growth of roots under control was accompanied by the distinct removal of older rootcap cells and the observation of intact epidermal cells. In contrast, epidermal cell dehydration initiated under 10 mM NaCl solution. The roots subjected to 25 and 50 mM of NaCl attributed root tip injuries along with severe epidermal cell dehydration and cell death even at short exposure. The formation of holes on the epidermis and distinct malformation of root tip increased considerably with respect to both increased salinity from 25 to 50 mM and the exposure time of roots to these saline solutions.
  Pear Mohammad , Masaya Shiraishi and Junko Toda
  The tapetal cells in trifoliate orange were studied prior to liberation of pollen grains under light and transmission electron microscopes. The tapetum was glandular or secretory type and consisted of two-layered flattened cells immediately below the 2-3 layered elongated parietal cells and anther wall. It surrounded the pollen sacs where numerous pollen grains were embedded freely. Many sporopollenin-like granules appeared throughout the tapetal zone releasing from the territory of tapetum and parietal layers. These granules moved through the intercellular spaces and found their ways towards the pollen grains which were finally absorbed by the bacula of grain walls. The multi-layered rough endoplasmic reticulum appeared near these absorption sites. The tapetal cells were devoid of distinct walls or they had only very thin envelopes. The tapetal cytoplasm contained highly dense, irregularly dense and less dense granules within different vesicles.
  Pear Mohammad , Masaya Shiraishi and Hironori Ono
  Anatomical changes in root tips of trifoliate orange grafted with satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsu Wase) at 0, 10, 25 and 50 mM NaCl in the culture solution were investigated after 3, 5, 8, and 10 days induction. At no-salt-control treatment, the root tips were always sharply pointed, apical initial cell layers were distinct and meristematic zone was wider. The rootcap and cortical cells apart from the root tip possessed only a few starch grains. The cortical cells were elongated and cell length gradually increased from the root tip towards the base. In contrast, under 10 mM NaCl, root tips gradually turned round and the meristematic zone finally shortened. Only a few starch grains accumulated up to 8 days of induction followed by degradation in the rootcap cells but cortical grains gradually increased. At 25 mM NaCl, severe sloughing of rootcap cells and the secretion of mucilaginous substances appeared on the 5th day. The epidermal and root tip injuries were found and the apical initial cell layers became indistinct from the 5th day onward. Lignification occurred in the central cylinder which gradually proceeded towards the root tip. Starch grain accumulation increased in the cortical cells but decreased in the rootcap cells along the exposure time to the saline solutions. The cortical cells tended to round and cell length increased near the root tip. At 50 mM NaCl solution, root tip and epidermal injuries and lignification in the central cylinder initiated on the 3rd day and became severe at longer exposure. Starch grains were not found in the rootcap cells but the cortical grains gradually increased. The cortical cell rounding and enlargement started from the very beginning of induction.
  Abdul Razaq , Nobuo Ohbayashi , Pear Mohammad and Masaya Shiraishi
  The predation behavior of Agistemus terminalis and Amblyseius sojaensis on Panonychus citri was studied under scanning electron microscope. Agistemus terminalis grasped egg stalk by claws and sensory organ of palpi and direct attack on eggs was done by needle-shaped stylets extruded from the rostrum. A distinct hole was found on the egg surface produced by the penetration and successive withdrawn of the rostrum and stylets. Finally, the hole became wide by the further attack of rostrum and palpi. Amblyseius sojaensis predated on the larvae and adults of P. citri. It grasped the anterior portion of the prey body by palpi and legs. Several sharply pointed and bent setae of palpi invaded into the cuticle of the prey. The prey was then attacked by the chelicerae and the cuticle was lacerated. The drawing of body fluid occurred by the extended malae which were positioned between the corniculi and the chelicerae.
  Abdul Razaq , Pear Mohammad , Masaya Shiraishi and Hironori Ono
  The external features of pink citrus rust mite, Aculops pelekassi (Keifer) were observed under scanning electron microscope. The body of this mite was spindle-shaped with a length of 100-150 μm. The propodosoma lines were irregularly arranged and the hysterosoma possessed 30-40 rings. The legs originated from the ventral portion of gnathosoma and extended forward. The first, second and third coxa possessed seta on their surface. Genital organ and a pair of setae were observed bellow the coxal base. The cover flap of the genital organ had 12 muscles on its surface. The tubercle of the flagellate ventral seta was cone-shaped and had a length of 15 μm. The first and second legs were six segmented where the tarsus had a single claw and a branched feathered claw. The gnathosoma was appended under the propodosoma and was extended forwardly. The palpi were segmented and smoothly surfaced. The rostrum was fixed between the palpi and the needle-like stylets were projected from its cavity.
  Abdul Razaq , Toshio Kashiwazaki , Pear Mohammad and Masaya Shiraishi
  Aphis citricola van der Goot was observed under scanning electron microscope. The head, prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax and smoothly surfaced abdomen were clearly recognized. A pair of eyes having several facets occupied the base of the antennae. The posterior part of the eye possessed a projected ocular tubercle. Clypeus and labrum positioned to anterior lower part of the head. The clypeus joint with the labrum at its lower portion as a separated organ. The rostrum originates bellow the labrum and had a length of 310-480 μm. The stylets were projected from the underside of labrum and were inserted into the basal and middle portion of the rostrum. Rostrum had three segments and a suture in the middle region extended up to the apex. A tube-like canal was found at the middle part of the rostrum. The inserted stylets were projected from the apex and diverted in three directions. The middle portion of the stylets was thick and laterals were thin having sharp tips. The stylets were 460-630 μm long and having a diameter of 2.5-3 μm.
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