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Articles by Paul Schimmel
Total Records ( 2 ) for Paul Schimmel
  Mili Kapoor , Quansheng Zhou , Francella Otero , Christopher A. Myers , Alison Bates , Rajesh Belani , Jianming Liu , Jiann-Kae Luo , Eleni Tzima , Dong-Er Zhang , Xiang-Lei Yang and Paul Schimmel
  In mammalian cells, specific aminoacyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetases have cytokine functions that require interactions with partners outside of the translation apparatus. Little is known about these interactions and how they facilitate expanded functions that link protein translation to other cellular pathways. For example, an alternative splice fragment of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) and a similar natural proteolytic fragment are potent angiostatic factors that act through the vascular endothelial-cadherin receptor and Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrate mobilization of TrpRS for exocytosis from endothelial cells and the potential for plasmin to activate the cytokine function of the extracellular synthetase. Direct physical evidence showed that the annexin II-S100A10 complex, which regulates exocytosis, forms a ternary complex with TrpRS. Functional studies demonstrate that both annexin II and S100A10 regulate trafficking of TrpRS. Thus, complexes of mammalian tRNA synthetases with seemingly disparate proteins may in general be relevant to understanding how their expanded functions are implemented.
  Yeeting E. Chong , Xiang-Lei Yang and Paul Schimmel
  AlaXp is a widely distributed (from bacteria to humans) genome-encoded homolog of the editing domain of alanyl-tRNA synthetases. Editing repairs the confusion of serine and glycine for alanine through clearance of mischarged (with Ser or Gly) tRNAAla. Because genome-encoded fragments of editing domains of other synthetases are scarce, the AlaXp redundancy of the editing domain of alanyl-tRNA synthetase is thought to reflect an unusual sensitivity of cells to mistranslation at codons for Ala. Indeed, a small defect in the editing activity of alanyl-tRNA synthetase is causally linked to neurodegeneration in the mouse. Although limited earlier studies demonstrated that AlaXp deacylated mischarged tRNAAla in vitro, the significance of this activity in vivo has not been clear. Here we describe a bacterial system specifically designed to investigate activity of AlaXp in vivo. Serine toxicity, experienced by a strain harboring an editing-defective alanyl-tRNA synthetase, was rescued by an AlaXp-encoding transgene. Rescue was dependent on amino acid residues in AlaXp that are needed for its in vitro catalytic activity. Thus, the editing activity per se of AlaXp was essential for suppressing mistranslation. The results support the idea that the unique widespread distribution of AlaXp arises from the singular difficulties, for translation, poised by alanine.
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