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Articles by Parmjit S. Panesar
Total Records ( 6 ) for Parmjit S. Panesar
  Parmjit S. Panesar
  To overcome the problem of enzyme extraction and poor permeability of cell membrane to lactose, permeabilization of Kluyveromyces marxianus cells was carried. Permeabilized whole cells can also be advantageous over more pure enzyme preparations due to increased stability maintained by the intracellular environment. In view of the advantages of immobilized cell system over free cell system, the permeabilized yeast cells were immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate gel. Different process parameters (alginate concentration, bead size, biomass load, temperature, agitation, incubation time) were optimized to enhance the lactose hydrolysis. Maximum lactose hydrolysis (84.8%) was observed with yeast cells immobilized in 2% (w/v) alginate concentration after 150 min of treatment time. The developed system was highly stable and the alginate entrapped yeast cells can be recycled up to 7th cycle without any significant decrease in their ability to carry out the lactose hydrolysis.
  Shweta Kumari , Parmjit S. Panesar , Manab B. Bera and Bahadur Singh
  The enzyme β-galactosidase, have been used in the dairy industry for the improvement of lactose intolerance. However, the industrial applications of enzymatic hydrolysis processes are being hampered, due to intracellular location of the yeast enzyme. The treatment of yeast cells with various chemical agents (n-butanol, n-propanol, iso-propanol, acetone, ethanol, toluene and a mixture of organic solvent) have been carried out to increase the β-galactosidase activity. Response Surfaces Methodology (RSM) using Central Composite Rotable Design (CCRD) was employed to optimize the toluene (25%, v/v): ethanol (50%, v/v) ratio, treatment time and temperature. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process to achieve maximum β-galactosidase activity obtained by RSM were 1:1 ratio of toluene (25%, v/v) and ethanol (50%, v/v), 23.0°C temperature and treatment time of 12 min which displayed enzyme activity of 1.68 IU mg-1 DW. The use of permeabilized cells can help to overcome the problems/costs associated with enzyme extraction and purification from yeast cells and in the development of a low-cost technology for β-galactosidase production.
  Parmjit S. Panesar and Chetan Shinde
  Probiotics are increasingly finding use as dietary supplements in processed foods. These are known for improving the host intestinal microbial balance and several potential health benefits. Interest in developing new probiotics formulations beckons the food and neutraceutical industry’s interest to target general health and well-being of consumers. The use of Aloe vera juice in the probiotic foods can be a promising trend towards use of herb as well as functional ingredients in the dairy foods. In the present investigation, Aloe vera fortified probiotic yoghurt was prepared and the effect of storage on syneresis, pH, Lactobacillus acidophilus count, Bifidobacterium bifidum count of Aloe vera fortified probiotic yoghurt was assessed for storage study. Aloe vera fortified probiotic yoghurt was produced using skim milk powder in Aloe vera juice and water blend, incubating at 37°C for 8 h. Bacterial counts were determined by pour plate technique whereas syneresis was determined according to standard procedures. Syneresis was increased from 4.7 to 8.3% (v/w), pH decreased from 4.03 to 3.91, Lactobacillus acidophilus count decreased from 39.7x109 cfu mL-1 to 32.1x109 cfu mL-1 and Bifidobacterium bifidum count decreased from 16.9x109 to 7.3x109 cfu mL-1. Counts of both bacteria remain more than suggested value of more than 107 throughout the storage period. This study showed that the Aloe vera fortified probiotic yoghurt could be used as an adequate carrier of probiotic bacteria with bacterial counts more than suggested level.
  Parmjit S. Panesar
  Lactose hydrolysis, which is of great concern due to nutritional, technological and environmental reasons, has been performed in skim milk using Kluyveromyces maxrianus cells. The yeast cells were permeabilized using ethanol in order to overcome the problem of poor permeability of cell membrane to lactose and subsequently immobilized by entrapment method in calcium alginate and agar-agar gel. The effects of gel concentration, temperature and treatment time on the performance of both the immobilized yeast cells preparations were investigated. Maximum hydrolysis (87.8%) of milk lactose was achieved with alginate entrapped yeast cells. The lactose hydrolysis reaction (in terms of loss of substrate as a function of time) using immobilized yeast cells can best be described as first order with half-life of ~ 44.4 minute for alginate gel in comparison to that of ~ 63 min for agar at 30°C in a batch process. Thus, former immobilization support/matrix is more efficient in lactose hydrolysis and demonstrated greater potential for future commercial application.
  Shweta Kumari , Parmjit S. Panesar and Reeba Panesar
  The hydrolysis of lactose by enzyme β-galactosidase into glucose and galactose play an important role in biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food processing industries. The aim of present study was focused on the isolation of novel yeast strains and formulation of low-cost medium based on whey for optimal β-galactosidase activity. β-galactosidase activities of isolated strains were carried out by ONPG assay. The yeast isolate (Kluyveromyces marxianus) showed maximum enzyme activity (1710 IU g-1 DW), when grown on whey permeate at pH 5.5, temperature 30°C after incubation period of 28 h. The utilization of dairy waste (whey) was found to be economical for β-galactosidase production by using isolated yeast cells. This enzyme is also known for its trans-galactosylation reaction and synthesized lactose based derivatives including lactulose and galacto-oligosaccarides, which can be further used in probiotic foods.
  Parmjit S. Panesar
  β-D-galactosidase (β-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC, most commonly known as lactase is widely distributed in nature and has wide scope in food industry, because of its applications in the production of lactose hydrolyzed milk and low lactose dairy products. The present study reports the use of whey as the fermentation medium for the production of β-D-galactosidase using a culture of Kluyveromyces marxianus as the producer organism. The effect of different process parameters such as pH of the medium, temperature, inoculum size, age of inoculum, agitation and incubation time was monitored to enhance the production of β-D-galactosidase. The maximum enzyme activity was observed with pH 5.0, temperature 30°C, inoculum size 6% (v/v) having 20 h age, under shaking conditions 100 rpm after 28 h of incubation.
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