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Articles by Pala Chaowarat
Total Records ( 10 ) for Pala Chaowarat
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Ten, one year old male cattles with initial body weight of 150±10 kg were randomly divided into 2 groups and received concentrate at 14% CP (T1) and Yeast-Malate Fermented Cassava Chip (YMFCC) (T2). The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1 %BW and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Means were compared using t-test. All animals were kept in individual pens and received free access to water. The results have revealed that replacement of YMFCC on feed intake was non-significantly different, while Average Daily Gain (ADG) and digestibility of nutrients were higher (p<0.05) in cattle fed YMFCC (T2) treatments than received concentrate at 14% CP (T1) (235 and 203 g/d). In addition, the ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were significantly different (p<0.05). The concentration of volatile fatty acid was significantly different especially the concentration of propionic acid was slightly higher in cattle receiving T2 than T1 (23.9 and 17.8 mol/100 mol). Supplementation of YMFCC (T2) could improve population of bacteria and fungal zoospore, but decreased populations of Holotrich and Entodiniomorph protozoa in rumen (p<0.05). The results indicate that supplementation of Yeast-Malate Fermented Cassava Chip (YMFCC) as a replacement concentrate at 14% CP could improve rumen fermentation efficiency and digestibility of nutrients in cattle.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhaler and Metha Wanapat
  Ten, one-year old heifers with initial body weight at 150±10 kg were randomly divided into 2 groups according to receive concentrate at 14% CP (1 kg/head/day) + Ivermectin (T1), cassava hay (T2) (1 kg/head/ day) and means were compared using t-test. All animals were grazing on ruzi grass pasture. The results have revealed that supplementation of cassava hay as anthelmintics replace ivermectin was non significant affected to fecal parasitic egg counts and average daily gain in buffaloes grazing on ruzi grass pasture (p>0.05). In addition, fecal parasitic egg counts dramatically declined for both treatment groups with 60.5 and 50.6%, respectively. However, Average Daily Gain (ADG) tended to be higher in swamp buffaloes fed on groups cassava hay (T2) treatments than in those fed concentrate + ivermectin. However, digestion of coefficients of nutrients particularly organic matter was significantly higher in T2 than those in T1. It was, hence concluded that cassava hay could not only provide as a protein source but also high efficiency serve as an anthelmintics in heifer.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhaler and Metha Wanapat
  Six, one-year old male swamp buffaloes with initial body weight at 200±10 kg were randomly divided into two groups according to receive concentrate at 14% CP (1 kg/head/day) + Ivermectin (T1); cassava hay (T2) (1 kg/head/day) and means were compared using t-test. All animals were grazing on ruzi grass pasture. The results have revealed that supplementation of cassava hay as anthelmintics replace ivermectin was non significant affected to fecal parasitic egg counts and average daily gain in buffaloes grazing on ruzi grass pasture (p>0.05). In addition, fecal parasitic egg counts dramatically declined for both treatment groups with 64.8 and 57.4%, respectively. However, Average Daily Gain (ADG) tended to be higher in swamp buffaloes fed on groups cassava hay (T2) treatments than in those fed concentrate + ivermectin. However, digestion of coefficients of nutrients particularly organic matter was significantly higher in T2 than those in T1. It was, hence concluded that cassava hay could not only provide as a protein source but also high efficiency serve as an anthelmintics in swam buffaloes.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Uthai Koatdoke , Rungson Singhaler and Metha Wanapat
  Ten, one-year old male native cattle with initial body weight at 150±10 kg were randomly divided into two groups according to receive concentrate at 14% CP (1 kg/head/day) + Ivermectin (T1); cassava hay (T2) (1 kg/head/day) and means were compared using t-test. All animals were grazing on ruzi grass pasture. The results have revealed that supplementation of cassava hay as anthelmintics replace ivermectin was non significant affected to fecal parasitic egg counts and average daily gain in buffaloes grazing on ruzi grass pasture (p>0.05). In addition, fecal parasitic egg counts dramatically declined for both treatment groups with 69.7 and 48.3%, respectively. However, Average Daily Gain (ADG) tended to be higher in swamp buffaloes fed on groups cassava hay (T2) treatments than in those fed concentrate + ivermectin. However, digestion of coefficients of nutrients particularly organic matter was significantly higher in T2 than those in T1. It was, hence concluded that cassava hay could not only provide as a protein source in native cattle but also high efficiency serve as an anthelmintics.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Four, lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of concentrate containing different level of protein at 14 and 18% CP and urea-treated corn silage at 2 and 5% respectively. The treatments were as follows by concentrate containing protein at 14% CP + 2% urea-treated corn silage (T1); concentrate containing protein at 14% CP + 5% urea-treated corn silage (T2); concentrate containing protein at 18% CP + 2% urea-treated corn silage (T3) and concentrate containing protein at 18% CP + 5% urea-treated corn silage (T4), respectively. The animals were offered the treatment concentrate at a ratio to milk yields at 1:2 and urea-treated corn silage were fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that total DM intake (%BW) and ruminal pH were not affected (p>0.05). Likewise, the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) were significantly different affected by protein levels in concentrate with urea levels treated corn silage. In addition, rumen microorganism populations such as bacteria, protozoa and fungal zoospores were affected (p<0.05) by different by protein levels in concentrate with urea level treated corn silage. Moreover, the differences of protein levels in concentrate and urea level treated in corn silage were affected to milk yield and composition (p<0.05), especially income over feed highest in dairy cows were received a concentrate containing protein at 18% CP + 5% urea treated corn silage (T4). Therefore, results from this experiment indicated that the differences of protein levels in concentrate and urea level treated corn silage affected on rumen ecology and milk production in lactating dairy cows.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Four, one-year old of dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 vs 1,000 g with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 1,000 vs 2,000 g in concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T2 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 2,000 g; T3 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T4 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate, respectively. The animals were offered the treatment concentrate at 1% BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and yeast. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 70%DM with malate at 1,000 g and yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate with ruzi grass as a roughage could improved rumen ecology in dairy steers.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Ten, one year old of native cattle with initial body weight of 150 ± 10 kg were randomly divided into two groups and received concentrate at 14% CP (T1) and Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip (YFCC) (T2). The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1% BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. Means were compared using T-test. All animals were kept in individual pens and received free access to water. The results have revealed that replacement of YFCC on feed intake was non-significantly different, while Average Daily Gain (ADG) was higher (p<0.05) in native cattle fed YFCC (T2) treatments than received concentrate at 14% CP (T1) (259 and 205 g/d). In addition, the ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were significantly different (p<0.05). Supplementation of YFCC (T2) could improve population of bacteria and fungal zoospore, but decreased populations of Holotrich and Entodiniomorph protozoa in rumen (p<0.05). The results indicate that supplementation of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip (YFCC) as a replacement concentrate at 14% CP could improve rumen fermentation efficiency in native cattle.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Four, one-year old of dairy heifers were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 vs 1,000 g with yeast at 1,000 vs 2,000 g in concentrate. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of malate at 500 g + yeast at 1,000 g; T2 = supplementation of malate at 500 g + yeast at 2,000 g; T3 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g + yeast at 1,000 g; T4 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g + yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1 %BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. However, the concentration of volatile fatty acid was significantly different especially the concentration of propionic acid was slightly higher in heifer receiving T4 than T3, T2 and T1 (24.4, 22.9, 22.4 and 19.7%, respectively). The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and yeast. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 70% DM with malate at 1,000 g and yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate with ruzi grass as a roughage could improved rumen ecology in dairy heifers.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Uthai Koatdoke , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Four, dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g and cassava hay in high-quality feed block. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T2 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g; T3 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T4 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1.0% BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and cassava hay supplementation. However, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. In conclusion, the combined use of cassava hay and malate at 1,000 g in high-quality feed block with concentrates containing high levels of cassava chip at 65% DM could highest improved rumen ecology in dairy steers.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Uthai Koatdoke , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Four, one-year old of native cattle were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 1,000 and 2,000 g in concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T2 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 2,000 g; T3 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T4 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate, respectively. The animals were offered the treatment concentrate at 1% BW of DM and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that concentration of volatile fatty acid was significantly different especially the concentration of propionic acid was slightly higher in cattle receiving T4 than T3, T2 and T1 (23.3, 21.9, 20.9 and 18.0%, respectively). The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and yeast. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 70% DM with malate at 1,000 g and yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate with urea-treated rice straw as a roughage could improved rumen ecology in native cattle.
 
 
 
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