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Articles by P.R. Ferket
Total Records ( 5 ) for P.R. Ferket
  A.A. Santos Jr , P.R. Ferket , J.L. Grimes and F.W. Edens
  The adverse effects of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) on turkeys fed wheat-based diets may be alleviated by dietary supplementation of endoxylanase (to reduce the adverse effects of digesta viscosity) or phospholipase (to improve the digestibility of fat). BUTA toms were fed wheat-based diets containing one of 5 enzyme treatments: unsupplemented control, Natugrain Blend® (<U>></U> 5,500 EXU/kg diet; NB), Lyxasan®-50 (<U>></U> 2,250 EXU/kg diet; LX50), Lyxasan®-100 (<U>></U> 5,500 EXU/kg diet; LX100), and Phospholipase (> 500 PLU/kg diet; PL) (BASF, Germany). Each treatment group was assigned to 8 pens containing 12 birds to evaluate growth performance (1-128 d), and 2 pens of 12 birds (excluding LX50) for the apparent metabolizable energy N-corrected (AMEn) and ileum viscosity determination (56-128 d). All enzyme treatments improved growth performance. In comparison to the control, dietary enzyme increased (P < 0.05) BW and decreased 1-128 d feed/gain (2.45 vs 2.37, P < 0.005). PL was most effective in reducing feed/gain during the starting phase and LX100 during the finishing phase, while NB had intermediate benefits throughout the experiment. PL increased AMEn from 9 to 12 wk, while NB and LX-100 resulted in the highest AMEn during the later finishing period. Viscosity was significantly higher for PL than the other treatments (13.5 vs 7.07 cP, P < 0.001). Growth performance and energy utilization of turkeys fed wheat-based diets can be significantly enhanced by phospholipase supplementation of starter feeds and endoxylanase supplementation of growing and finishing feeds. However, enzyme blends may provide a positive response regardless of turkey age.
  A.A. Santos Jr , P.R. Ferket , J.L. Grimes and F.W. Edens
  Wheat varies in apparent metabolizable energy N-corrected (AMEn) due to the presence of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), which can be improved by dietary enzyme supplementation. Poults from 0-17 d-age were fed diets containing various wheat sources (WS) with or without Natugrain Blend® (NB) (BASF, Germany). Five replicate cages of 10 poults were assigned to each eight-soybean-meal/wheat treatment diets and a control soybean-meal/corn diet. The treatments were a factorial arrangement of 4 WS (A, B, C, D) and 2 enzyme levels (0 and 200 mg NB/kg). The WS differed by the degree of frost damage during seed development. Regardless of the source of wheat, NB increased 17 d BW (351 vs 381 g, P < 0.001), decreased 1-17 d FCR (1.55 vs 1.49, P < 0.05), increased AMEn (2,204 vs 2,455 kcal/kg, P < 0.001), and increased apparent nitrogen retention (ANR) (35.0 vs 41.4 %, P < 0.05). No effects of WS were seen on growth performance, but WS A and B had higher (P < 0.05) AMEn than sources C and D (2,396 and 2,460 vs 2,246 and 2,216 kcal/kg, respectively). Gut viscosity was higher (P < 0.05) in poults fed wheat-based diets than the control diet. Enzyme supplementation to the wheat-based diets decreased viscosity (5.57 vs 3.98 cP, P < 0.05) to a level similar to the corn-based control diet, and it resulted in equivalent growth performance. Viscosities were negatively correlated with AMEn. The results demonstrated a positive effect of enzyme supplementation on nutrient utilization and performance of turkeys.
  D.T. Moore , P.R. Ferket and P.E. Mozdziak
  Satellite cells are mitotically active cells in skeletal muscle that contribute new nuclei to growing myofibers. The objective of this experiment was to determine satellite cell mitotic activity in turkey embryos, early post-hatch poults, and 1 week-old poults. All poults were fed a standard corn and soybean meal based starter diet throughout the experiment. 5-bromo-2`deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected intra-abdominally into all poults and embryos. Pectoralis thoracicus were harvested two hours post-injection to determine mitotically active satellite cells. Samples were taken at 25 days of incubation (25E), day-of-hatch, 1 day-of-age, and 1 wk-of -age (n = 10 for all groups). BrdU immunohistochemistry along with computer-based image analysis was used to identify the mitotically active satellite cells. Satellite cell mitotic activity was lower (P < 0.05) at 25E compared to day of hatch. Furthermore, there was an age-related decrease (P < 0.05) in satellite cell mitotic activity between 1 day posthatch to one week-of-age. The low satellite cell mitotic activity at 25E suggests that late embryonic development may be a developmental period to target increasing satellite cell mitotic activity. Furthermore, the normally high satellite cell mitotic activity immediately post-hatch suggests that the early post-hatch period is also an important target for nutritional manipulations aimed at improving skeletal muscle growth and meat yield.
  O.T. Foye , Z. Uni , J.P. McMurtry and P.R. Ferket
  In ovo feeding (IOF), injecting nutrients into the amnion, may improve growth performance by enhancing circulating IGF`s and glycogen reserves. To test this hypothesis 400 Hybrid® turkey eggs were injected into the amnion with 1.5 ml saline solutions consisting of 4 IOF formulation treatments consisting of a factorial arrangement of 2 levels of arginine (ARG 0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of HMB (0 or 0.1%) at 23 days (d) of incubation. At hatch, poults were fed ad libitum and bodyweights (BW), organ weights, total liver and pectoralis muscle (PM) glycogen were taken at hatch 3, 7, 10, and 14 d. Additionally, hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) activity was determined at hatch and 7 d. Heparinized blood samples were taken at hatch, 3 d, 7 d and 14 d and plasma was analyzed for IGF-I and IGF-II levels using an acid-ethanol extraction method. Although arginine had no affect on BW, there were significant main effects of HMB on increased BW from hatch through 14 d. Plasma IGF-I levels were significantly enhanced at hatch, 3 and 7 d in poults in ovo fed both ARG and HMB, but not when either factor was independent. Significant ARG X HMB effects were observed on IGF-II at hatch, 3d and 7d: without ARG, IGF-II was decreased by HMB, but it increased when added with ARG. All in ovo treatments increased G6P at hatch, while, G6P was depressed by HMB or ARG alone at 7 d. Total hepatic glycogen was increased only at hatch by HMB or ARG, but their effects were not additive as indicated by a significant ARG X HMB effect. In ovo administration of HMB and arginine enhances hepatic liver reserves, which may provide the fuel needed for rapid subsequent growth during the critical post-hatch period.
  F.B.O. Santos , A.A. Santos Jr. , P.R. Ferket and B.W. Sheldon
  This study aimed to determine the impact of feeding partially ground corn or insoluble fiber on intestinal development, Salmonella cecal colonization and fecal shedding of turkeys from 0-28d. Turkeys reared in cage-batteries were assigned to 1 of 3 diets: ground corn-SBM (GC, TRT 1), coarse ground corn-SBM (CC, TRT 2), and 4% wood shavings + ground corn-SBM (SC, TRT 3). A 3-strain cocktail of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serotypes Hadar, Javaina, and Typhimurium was orally-gavaged into each poult at placement. Cecal and fecal Salmonella populations, growth performance and intestinal weights and lengths were measured. The diets had no impact on Salmonella cecal or fecal populations. At 28d, Salmonella cecal populations decreased approximately 3-logs (range: 2.4-3.3 log reduction) across all treatments in comparison to 7d (P< 0.0001). At 28d body weight, body gain and feed conversion ratio were not impacted by the diets. However, at 14d poults consuming the SC diet had lower feed consumption than those fed the GC and CC diets (231 vs. 243 and 252 g, P=0.001, respectively). The CC diet resulted in heavier relative gizzard weights at 28d in comparison to the GC and SC diets (30 vs. 28 and 22 g/kg, respectively, P< 0.0001). Conversely, the SC treatment reduced the mass of the small intestine relative to body weight, especially the jejunum. Dietary inclusion of coarsely ground corn and wood shavings had no adverse effect on growth performance yet improved gizzard and intestinal development, which could have positive effects on intestinal health.
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