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Articles by P.J. Blore
Total Records ( 4 ) for P.J. Blore
  H.P. Bhaskaran , A.M. Donoghue , K. Arsi , A. Wooming , I. Reyes-Herrera , L.R. Bielke , G. Tellez , J.A. Byrd , P.J. Blore , B.M. Hargis and D.J. Donoghue
  The administration of nonpathogenic microflora in neonatal poultry has been employed to reduce or eliminate the colonization of enteric pathogens. This concept, also called Competitive Exclusion (CE), although effective against Salmonella, has not consistently worked against Campylobacter. Most CE cultures are developed by randomly collecting enteric bacteria without any preselection criteria for bacteria. It may be possible to enhance the efficacy of a CE against Campylobacter by preselecting enteric microflora with the ability to inhibit Campylobacter, in vitro. With this goal, an assay was developed to test individual isolates with the ability to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter growth, in vitro. Individual isolates (n = 137) were collected from ceca of both juvenile and adult poultry and tested for efficacy against Campylobacter. Isolates were serially diluted (104 or 105 CFU/well) and added to 96 well polystyrene plates containing 1 x 104 CFU C. jejuni or C. coli/well. Plates were incubated at 42°C in a microaerophilic environment for 24-48 h. Following incubation, a 1 μl loop from each well was streaked onto Campy-Cefex agar plate and incubated at 42°C in a microaerophilic environment for 24-48 h. Twenty-three isolates were identified with the ability to inhibit C. jejuni or C. coli growth in vitro. This research demonstrates that it is possible to pre-screen enteric isolates for Campylobacter inhibition for use as competitive exclusion cultures.
  G.Q. Liu , A.M. Donoghue , J.R. Moyle , I. Reyes-Herrera , P.J. Blore , R.K. Bramwell , D.E. Yoho , K. Venkitanarayanan and D.J. Donoghue
  Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of bacterial human acute gastroenteritis. These microorganisms are highly prevalent in poultry semen and may contribute to vertical transmission of the pathogen between the breeder hen and offspring. Unfortunately, strategies to reduce or eliminate these pathogens in poultry semen negatively impact sperm viability. Many plant essential oils have been reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses. The objective of our study was to examine the efficacy of trans-cinnamaldehyde, the main component in cinnamon oil, to reduce Campylobacter concentrations in chicken semen. Semen was collected from roosters, pooled and diluted with semen extender, then divided into treatments: negative control (no Campylobacter, no trans-cinnamaldehyde), positive control (inoculated with Campylobacter, no trans-cinnamaldehyde) or treatments containing concentrations of 0.24, 0.12, 0.06, 0.03 or 0.015% trans-cinnamaldehyde. Treatment groups receiving Campylobacter were then immediately inoculated with ~105 cfu/mL of a wild-type Campylobacter jejuni and held at 4°C or 23°C for 2 h. Semen was stored at 4°C for an additional 24 h and assessed for Campylobacter concentrations and sperm viability at 2, 6 and 24 h utilizing SYBR 14/Propidium iodide live/dead stain and fluorescent microscopy. The study was replicated eight times. After 2h at 23°C a 2 log reduction in Campylobacter counts were observed in the 0.12 and 0.24% trans-cinnamaldehyde treatment groups compared to positive controls. In the 4°C treatments, no differences were observed between treatments and controls after 2 h. Samples evaluated after 24 h incubation in vitro at 4°C, showed significant reductions of Campylobacter counts in the 0.06, 0.03 or 0.015% trans-cinnamaldehyde treatments groups, while the 0.12 and 0.24% groups eliminated detectable Campylobacter counts. Sperm viability remained at 80% or above for all treatment groups. Trans-cinnamaldehyde reduced Campylobacter in semen, without detrimentally affecting sperm viability and might provide a practical solution to eliminate Campylobacter in poultry semen after in vitro storage.
  I. Reyes-Herrera , M.J. Schneider , P.J. Blore and D.J. Donoghue
  Presence of antibiotic residues in edible animal products is a human food safety concern. To address this potential problem, many governments sample edible tissues, such as muscle, to monitor for residues. Alternatively, antibiotic residue concentrations could be screened in blood which is readily available during carcass processing. To determine if blood concentrations are predictive of muscle concentrations, 252 market aged broilers were dosed with Oxytetracycline (OTC) in water at three doses: the maximum OTC approved dose for broilers (800 mg/gal) or five or ten times that dose. Blood and muscle samples were collected before initial dosing (0 hour, controls), during dosing at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 or 144 hours and at 12, 24, 36, 48 or 60 hours after drug withdrawal. Concentrations in blood and muscle tissues followed similar time: concentration patterns, peaking 24 hours after initial dosing (396±9 vs. 557±37 ppb; 443±48 vs. 1846±58 ppb or 2447±67 vs. 3210±36 ppb for the 1, 5 or 10x doses in blood vs. muscle, respectively) and declined rapidly after withdrawal. These data suggest blood samples may be used to predict OTC concentrations in muscle as a screening procedure for OTC residues in poultry.
  J.H. Metcalf , P.A. Moore Jr , A.M. Donoghue , K. Arsi , A. Woo-Ming , P.J. Blore , I. Hanning , S.C. Ricke and D.J. Donoghue
  To evaluate potential bacterial runoff from poultry litter, litter was applied to test plots and exposed to simulated rainfall 1, 8 or 15 d after litter application. Runoff samples were tested for Salmonella and Campylobacter, two bacterial pathogens commonly associated with poultry, as well as common fecal indicators such as coliforms, enterococci and Escherichia coli. The runoff samples were evaluated from treatments of no litter (control), or the equivalent of 1, 2 or 4 ton/acre of untreated poultry litter. Additionally, runoff samples from treatments of 2 tons/acre of alum-treated litter, 2 tons/acre composted litter and 2 ton/acre deep-stacked litter were compared for bacterial content. Three replicates of the treatments were performed, for a total of 21 test plots. No Campylobacter was isolated from any of the samples and the majority of samples tested negative for Salmonella. Although Salmonella was detected in runoff from many of the plots, it may have originated from sources other than the applied litter (rodents, birds, etc.) since it was detected in two of the unfertilized control plots.
 
 
 
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