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Articles by P.I. Rekwot
Total Records ( 13 ) for P.I. Rekwot
  J.A. Obidi , B.I. Onyeanusi , J.O. Ayo , P.I. Rekwot and T. Dzenda
  The objective of this study was to determine gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves in Shikabrown breeder cocks. Five cocks, each of Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red, were slaughtered after one year of evaluation of seminal characteristics. To determine testicular integrity of the breeder cocks, left and right testes from each slaughtered samples were carefully dissected out of the abdomen and marked accordingly. Each testis weight, length and volume were measured, followed by the determination of gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves. The mean testicular lengths for Shikabrown White were 4.22 ± 0.03cm and 3.98 ± 0.04cm for the right and left testes, respectively; while that for Shikabrown Red were 4.40 ± 0.1cm and 4.44 ± 0.09cm for right and left testes, respectively. The mean testicular weight of Shikabrown Red cocks was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of Shikabrown White cocks (12.39 ± 0.76g and 10.23 ± 0.25g, respectively). The mean gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves (x 109 per ml testis) for the right testes in Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red cocks were 57.6 ± 5.6 and 103.2 ± 22.3 (P < 0.01), respectively, while those of the left testes were 84.8 ± 18.2 and 209.4 ± 95.1, respectively. The left mean gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves in Shikabrown Red strain was statistically (P < 0.01) higher than Shikabrown White strain. This study suggests: I) that there are strain differences in testicular function of the breeder cocks and ii) that there are differences in spermatogenic capacity between the right and left testes in breeder cocks.
  J.A. Obidi , B.I. Onyeanusi , P.I. Rekwot , J.O. Ayo and T. Dzenda
  The seasonal influence on the seminal characteristics of Shikabrown breeder cocks was evaluated weekly during the three seasons in Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. Semen samples were analyzed by gross and routine laboratory methods for volume, motility, concentration, colour, percent dead and percent total abnormality. The highest volume and concentration values of 0.50 ± 0.03ml and 3.60 ± 0.16x109/ml, respectively, were obtained from Shikabrown White breeder cocks during the rainy season, while the lowest volume and concentration values of 0.39 ± 0.01ml and 2.90 ± 0.04x109/ml, respectively, were obtained for the same strain during the hot-dry season. Spermatozoa motility of 80.5 ± 1.1% and 82.3 ± 0.5% were obtained during the harmattan and rainy seasons, respectively, in Shikabrown White breeder cocks. Percent dead sperm values of 4.6 ± 8.3% and 6.40 ± 0.5% were recorded during the rainy and hot-dry seasons, respectively; which were lower (P < 0.05) than the value of 9.0 ± 1.0% obtained during the harmattan season in Shikabrown White breeder cocks. For the Shikabrown Red breeder cocks, spermatozoa volume and concentration were 0.44 ± 0.02ml and 3.44 ± 0.05x109/ml; while 0.45 ± 0.05ml and 3.53 ± 0.09x109/ml.were recorded for the harmattan and rainy seasons, respectively. These values were significantly (P < 0.01) different from the corresponding values of 0.30 ± 0.02ml and 2.50 ± 0.08x109/ml obtained for volume and concentration, respectively, during the hot-dry season in the Shikabrown Red breeder cocks. Percent dead sperm in the Shikabrown Red cocks during the rainy and hot-dry seasons (5.50 ± 1.0% and 6.20 ± 1.2%, respectively) were not statistically (P < 0.05) significant, but were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than the value of 8.40 ± 0.5% obtained during the harmattan season. The ejaculate trait for percent abnormality in Shikabrown Red cocks was not significantly different from that of the Shikabrown White strains. In conclusion, spermatozoa were recovered throughout the year and optimal gamete quality was observed during the rainy and harmattan seasons.
  J.A. Obidi , B.I. Onyeanusi , J.O. Ayo , P.I. Rekwot and S.J. Abdullahi
  The influence of timing of artificial insemination on fertility and hatchability of breeder hens was carried out by inseminating breeder hens at 10:00 hr and 15:00 hr with pooled semen from Shikabrown White breeder cocks for four weeks. Fertile eggs were collected two days after the first insemination and stored at a temperature of 16oC for seven days before incubation. Fertility was higher (P < 0.05) in hens inseminated at 10:00 hr when sperm quality was optimal. The fertility values of 82.1 ± 1.0% and 85.0 ± 2.3% obtained in Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red hens, respectively, for 10:00 hr insemination were significantly (P < 0.01) different from the corresponding values of 76.0 ± 3.2% and 78.3 ± 2.5% recorded at 15:00 hr insemination in the Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red hens, respectively. The hatchability values of 72.5 ± 2.8% and 67.0 ± 3.3% were obtained for Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red hens, respectively, for the morning hour insemination. These values were significantly (P < 0.01) different from the corresponding values of 65.0 ± 1.0% and 63.0 ± 1.1% obtained in the Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red hens, respectively, for 15:00 hr insemination. The results showed that timing of artificial insemination influence fertility in Shikabrown breeder hens and this is probably mediated by meteorological factors. In conclusion for better fertility of Shikabrown hens, insemination should be carried out at 10:00 hr.
  J.S. Rwuaan , P.I. Rekwot , P.A. Abdu , L.O. Eduvie and J.A. Obidi
  Fifty 20 week old Shikabrown cocks consisting of 22 red Shikabrown and 28 white Shikabrown cocks were purchased from the National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika and used for this study. Twenty-five of the cocks made up of 12 red and 13 white cocks selected on basis of weight were infected with 2 ml of 106.0 EID5.0 of a Velogenic Kudu 113 strain of Newcastle disease virus intranasally and orally. The remaining twenty-five cocks made up of 14 red and 11 white served as control. Blood samples were taken from the wing veins of both infected and control cocks and centrifuged in a Hermle Z364 centrifuge at 251.6 g for packed cell volume, total protein and Newcastle disease antibody titres. There was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected red Shikabrown cocks. Similarly there was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected white Shikabrown cocks, although the infected cocks had slightly lower values. Total protein did not show any significant difference between the control and infected red cocks and between the control and infected white cocks. The antibody titres of the control red and white cocks were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those of the infected red and white cocks. This finding showed that the challenged red and white cocks had high antibody titres and a slight drop in packed cell volume. The mean antibody titres of 1.9 ±0.7 to 4.6 ±0.4 log2 provided protection to the Shikabrown cocks against the velogenic Newcastle disease virus since none of the challenged cocks died. This study suggests that in an endemic environment like Zaria, poultry farmers keeping Shikabrown chickens should vaccinate them against Newcastle disease. Challenging the red and white Shikabrown cocks with the velogenic Newcastle disease virus increased their protection against the Newcastle disease.
  T.A. Dare , P.I. Rekwot , Y.O. Aliu , M. Mamman , J.A. Obidi , N.P. Chiezey and B.O. Omontese
  The effect of season and Progesterone-Releasing Intravaginal Device (PRID) alone or with Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) on ovarian function of 106 Bunaji cows was investigated in two seasons. In the dry season trial, 46 cows were randomly distributed into the following treatment groups: PRID alone (n = 16), PRID+PMSG (n = 15) and control (15). In the rainy season trial, 60 cows were randomly distributed into the following treatment groups: PRID alone (n = 20); PRID+PMSG (n = 20) and control (20). During the dry season, Bunaji cows treated with PRID alone had a significantly (p<0.05) lower estrus response than the cows administered with PRID+PMSG (37.5 vs 66.7%, respectively). During the rainy season, 65.0% of Bunaji cows treated with PRID+PMSG were found to be in estrus; this was not significantly higher than the value of 60.0% estrus rate recorded in Bunaji cows treated with PRID only. In PRID treated Bunaji cows, pregnancy rates of 25.0 and 45.0% was recorded during the dry and rainy season, respectively. Pregnancy rates in PRID+PMSG treated cows were 46.7 and 50.0%, respectively. Pregnancy rate was generally lower in the dry season than in the rainy season in both PRID only, PRID+PMSG and control groups. However, the highest pregnancy rate of 50.0% was obtained in PRID+PMSG treated Bunaji cows during the rainy season. Conception rate in Bunaji cows treated with PRID only (66.7%) was lower than cows treated with PRID+PMSG (70%) during the dry season although not significantly. Similarly during the rainy season, Bunaji cows treated with PRID+PMSG had a higher conception rate than cows treated with PRID only (76.9 vs 75.0%, respectively). This study suggests that the rainy season enhances greater ovarian function in dairy cows in the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria and that administration of PMSG may potentiate fertility rates.
  H.J. Makun , J.O. Ajanusi , C.A.M. Lakpini , O.W. Ehoche and P.I. Rekwot
  The study was conducted to determine the relative resistance of Red Sokoto and Sahelian goats to experimental infection with infective larva (L3) of Haemonchus contortus. At the age of about 7-9 months weaned goats were transferred to individual feeding pens and fed concentrate at 08:00 h and given Digitaria smutsii hay ad libitum. Fifteen goats of each breed were divided into 3 groups of five animals each. Goats were either given 0 L3 kg-1 (treatment 1), 75 L3 kg-1 (treatment 2) or 100 L3 kg-1 (treatment 3), three times weekly for 3 weeks. The faecal egg count expressed in Eggs per Gram (EPG) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for the Sahelian (1477±153.4) than the Red Sokoto (607±147.5). The PCV didn`t show any significant difference between breed however the difference between treatment was significant at p < 0.05. The average daily gain was higher for the Red Sokoto (11.2 g day-1) than the Sahelian (5.6 g day-1) even though the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). The mean total protein was statistically different between breeds. The Red Sokoto had higher (p < 0.05) than the Sahelian (64.6 ± 1.81 vs 57.6 ± 1.86). The mean albumin and globulin concentration did not differ significantly between breed. It was concluded that the Red Sokoto were relatively more resistant to Haemonchus contortus on the basis of faecal egg count, weight gains, changes in the PCV and total serum protein concentration.

  M. Kabir , O.O. Oni , G.N. Akpa , I.A. Adeyinka and P.I. Rekwot
  Fifty Rhode Island chickens were randomly assigned to five treatments with ten cocks in each treatment. Group I cocks (full fed control) received 140 g of a 16% CP growers ration per cock per day. Cocks in Group II, III, IV and V received 98, 70, 42 and 28 g of the same ration per cock per day, representing 70, 50, 30 and 20% of Group I intake, respectively. The feeding trials lasted for 8 weeks during which one ejaculate per day was collected from each cock using the massage technique. The ejaculated semen samples were subjected to both physical and biochemical evaluations. Results showed that cocks that were severely underfed (i.e., Groups IV and V) took significantly longer time (p<0.01) to ejaculate. In addition, ejaculation failures were encountered more frequently with the severely underfed cocks than in cocks that were moderately underfed (i.e., Groups II and III). There were however, no significant differences in most of the biochemical parameters between cocks I all the treatment groups. Ejaculate volume, progressive sperm motility and sperm concentration were significantly depressed (p<0.01) in the severely underfed cocks than in the moderately underfed cocks. Thus, this study revealed that providing Rhode Island red and white cocks with one-half to three-quarter (i.e., 50-70%) of their normal daily ration would neither undermine their semen producing ability nor affect their semen quality adversely.
  B.O. Omontese , P.I. Rekwot , H.J. Makun , J.A. Obidi , J.S. Ruwaan and N.P. Chiezey
  The efficiency of EAZI-Breed™ CIDR® and FGA-30® intravaginal sponges in synchronizing estrus was investigated in prepartum Yankasa Ewes. About 20 randomly cycling pre-partum Yankasa ewes aged between 1.5-2 years and weighing between 13-15 kg was used for this study. They were randomly assigned into two groups, Group A (FGA, n = 10) and Group B (CIDR®, n = 10) for 14 days. Natural mating by a fertile ram was performed following progestagen withdrawal for ewes detected to be on heat. Estrus response in Group A and B was 70 and 80%, respectively. The time to estrus onset following progestagen withdrawal for FGA-30 and CIDR (Mean±SEM) was 43.60±6.98 and 23.57±4.07 h, respectively. In Groups A and B, the duration of induced estrus was (46.65±3.08 and 53.90±5.87 h) while estrus cessation was (90.37±8.44 and 77.92±4.24 h) post withdrawal of the devices. The interval from withdrawal of progestagen to onset of estrus was (p<0.05) longer in FGA than in CIDR (43.60±6.98 vs. 23.57±4.07 h). However, the duration of induced estrus period was shorter in the FGA group than the CIDR group. Retention rate was lower in group A (60%) than B (90%). Drawstring breakage observed in FGA sponges was absent in CIDR devices (20% versus 0) while vaginal discharge rate was higher in group A. These results show that although FGA and CIDR devices are equally efficient in synchronizing estrus in prepartum Yankasa ewes, CIDR provides higher estrus response rate, shorter time to estrus, longer duration of estrus, higher retention rate and ease of application. Consequently, the use of CIDR is recommended.
  T.A. Dare , P.I. Rekwot , Y.O. Aliu , M. Mamman , J.A. Obidi , B.O. Omontese , N.P. Chiezey and J.S. Rwuann
  The effect of season and Progesterone-Releasing Intravaginal Device (PRID) alone or with Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) on ovarian function of 106 Bunaji cows was investigated in two seasons. In the dry season trial, 46 cows were randomly distributed into the following treatment groups: PRID alone (n = 16), PRID+PMSG (n = 15) and control (15). In the rainy season trial, 60 cows were randomly distributed into the following treatment groups: PRID alone (n = 20); PRID+PMSG (n = 20) and control (20). During the dry season, Bunaji cows treated with PRID alone had a significantly (p<0.05) lower estrus response than the cows administered with PRID+PMSG (37.5 vs 66.7%, respectively). During the rainy season, 65.0% of Bunaji cows treated with PRID+PMSG were found to be in estrus; this was not significantly higher than the value of 60.0% estrus rate recorded in Bunaji cows treated with PRID only. In PRID treated Bunaji cows, pregnancy rates of 25.0 and 45.0% was recorded during the dry and rainy season, respectively. Pregnancy rates in PRID+PMSG treated cows were 46.7 and 50.0%, respectively. Pregnancy rate was generally lower in the dry season than in the rainy season in both PRID only, PRID+PMSG and control groups. However, the highest pregnancy rate of 50.0% was obtained in PRID+PMSG treated Bunaji cows during the rainy season. Conception rate in Bunaji cows treated with PRID only (66.7%) was lower than cows treated with PRID+PMSG (70%) during the dry season, although not significantly. Similarly during the rainy season, Bunaji cows treated with PRID+PMSG had a higher conception rate than cows treated with PRID only (76.9 vs 75.0%, respectively). In conclusion, this study suggests that the rainy season enhances greater ovarian function in dairy cows in the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria and that administration of PMSG may potentiate fertility rates.
  J.S. Rwuaan , P.I. Rekwot , P.A. Abdu , L.O. Eduvie , B.O. Omontese and J.A. Obidi
  Fifty 20 weeks old Shikabrown (SB) cocks consisting of 22 red and 28 white SB cocks were purchased from the National Animal Production Research Institute Shika. The cocks were fed on a diet of layers mash with 18% crude protein, 95.6% dry matter, 17.1% crude fibre and 3% nitrogen. About 25 cocks consisting of 8 red and 17 white SB cocks selected on the basis of body weight and antibody titres were infected with 0.2 mL of 106.0 EID50 of velogenic Kudu 113 strain of Newcastle disease virus intranasaly and orally. About 25 cocks consisting of 14 red and 11 white SB cocks served as control. Cloacal temperatures, body weights and semen samples of both control and infected cocks were taken weekly for 6 weeks. The semen was evaluated for volume, colour, motility, concentration, percentage live spermatozoa and percentage total spermatozoa abnormalities. Semen colour was graded as creamy (1 = very good); milky (2 = good) and watery (3 = poor). There was no significant difference in the cloacal temperatures and body weights of control and infected red and white SB cocks. The infected red and white cocks had slightly higher cloacal temperatures than the control. The semen volume of infected red cocks showed a general increase over that of the control red cocks. The semen volume of the control white SB cocks was significantly higher than that of the infected white cocks. The white SB cocks had higher semen volume than the red SB cocks. The red SB cocks had slightly better semen colour than the white SB cocks. The control white cocks had higher spermatozoa motility than the infected white cocks while the infected red cocks had higher spermatozoa motility than the control red cocks. The white SB cocks generally had better spermatozoa motility than the red cocks. The spermatozoa concentration of the control white cocks was consistently higher than that of the infected white SB cocks; the reverse was the case with the red cocks where the spermatozoa concentration of the infected red cocks was higher than that of the control red cocks. The white cocks had better spermatozoa concentration than the red cocks. The control white SB cocks had significantly (p<0.05) higher percent live spermatozoa than the infected white cocks. Similarly, the infected red SB cocks had lower percent live spermatozoa than the control red cocks. The control white SB cocks had significantly (p<0.05) higher percent live spermatozoa than the control red SB cocks. The infected red and white SB cocks had higher percentage total spermatozoa abnormalities than the contol red and white cocks. It can be concluded from this study that the white SB cocks had better semen quality than the red SB cocks; the non-infected SB cocks had better semen quality than the infected SB cocks. It is recommended that white SB cocks be used for breeding purposes and that breeder cocks should be routinely vaccinated against Newcastle disease to ensure that the level of antibodies is high enough to prevent adverse effect on semen quality.
  J.S. Ruwaan , P.I. Rekwot , P.A. Abdu , B.O. Omontese , J.A. Obidi and N.P. Chiezey
  About fifty 20 weeks old Shika Brown (SB) cocks were used in this study. Five cocks consisting of three Red Shika-Brown (RSB) and two White Shika-Brown (WSB) were bled for serum samples for testosterone assay at weeks 1, 3 and 6 pre and post-infection with a Velogenic Newcastle disease virus. Blood samples were collected at 30 min interval for 3 h from each cock on the days of sampling. The blood samples were centrifuged in a Hermle Z364 centrifuge at 251.6x g for 15 min with the sera obtained stored in serum vials and kept in a deep freezer at -20°C until analysis using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. At the end of the study, twenty control (n = 20) and twenty infected (n = 20) cocks were slaughtered. Their testicles were removed, measured, minced and ground for the determination of gonadal sperm reserves. The mean testosterone concentration of both the control SB cocks and the pre-infected SB cocks had no particular pattern. The mean testosterone concentration post infection showed a decrease from week 1-6. The mean testosterone concentration peak for the control red SB cocks was 1, 2 and 2.5 nmols mL-1 at weeks 1, 3 and 6, respectively while the white SB cocks had 12.5, 5.5, 3 nmols mL-1 at weeks 1, 3 and 6, respectively. The infected red SB cocks had mean testosterone concentration peaks of 9.7, 6.3 and 2.7 nmols mL-1 at weeks 1, 3 and 6 post-infection, respectively while the white SB cocks had a mean testosterone concentration peak of 6.5, 14.5 and 6.5 nmols mL-1 at weeks 1, 3 and 6 post-infection, respectively. The gonadal sperm reserves of the control red and white SB cocks were not significantly different but the gonadal sperm reserves of the control white SB cocks was significantly (p>0.05) higher than the gonadal sperm reserves of the infected red and white SB cocks. The total gonadal sperm reserve of the control white cocks was significantly (p>0.05) higher than the total gonadal sperm reserves of the infected red and white SB cocks.
  B.O. Omontese , P.I. Rekwot , H.J. Makun , J.A. Obidi , J.S. Rwuaan and N.P. Chiezey
  The efficiency of EAZI-Breed™ CIDR® and FGA-30® intravaginal sponges in synchronizing estrus was investigated in prepartum Red Sokoto does. About 19 randomly cycling pre-partum Red Sokoto does aged between 1.5-2 years and weighing between 12-14 kg were used for this study. They were randomly assigned into two groups, Group A (FGA, n = 10) and Group B (CIDR®, n = 9) for 21 days. Natural mating was performed following progestagen withdrawal for animals detected to be on heat. Estrus response was 20 and 55.6% in groups A and B, respectively. The time to estrus onset following progestagen withdrawal for FGA and CIDR (Mean±S.D.) was 93.09±2.06 and 50.29±4.71 h; duration of induced estrus (0.08±0.05 and 39.99±6.05 h) while estrus cessation was (93.14±2.03 and 90.48±4.69 h) in group A and B, respectively. Interval between withdrawal of progestagen and onset of estrus was significantly (p<0.05) longer in FGA compared to CIDR. The duration of induced estrus period was significantly (p<0.05) longer in CIDR treatment. Retention rate was 100% (FGA) and 88.9% (CIDR) in group A and B, respectively. Drawstring breakage was observed in FGA sponges but absent in CIDR devices. Also, vaginal discharge rate was higher in FGA than CIDR groups. These results show that CIDR devices are more efficient in synchronizing estrus in prepartum Red Sokoto does. This is because CIDR provides higher estrus response rate, shorter time to estrus, longer duration of estrus, absence of drawstring breakage and better ease of application. Therefore, the use of CIDR is advocated.
  M.U. Kawu , L.S. Yaqub , J.O. Ayo , P.I. Rekwot , B. Habibu , M. Tauheed , M.M. Suleiman , M. Shittu , T. Aluwong , H.I. Isa and A. Abdullahi
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the features of induced abortion and post-abortion oestrous cycles pattern following treatment with prostaglandin F (PGF) in Sokoto Red (SR) goats. Twelve apparently healthy goats made up of 6 pregnant and 6 non-pregnant (cycling) does were used for the study. Each doe was given a single intramuscular injection of 7.5 mg PGF. All the 6 pregnant does treated with PGF aborted within 72.0±12.4 h post-treatment. Of the 6 does that aborted, 5 (83.3%) showed oestrus subsequently while 4 (66.7%) out of the 6 non-pregnant does were induced to oestrus. Time interval to induced oestrus was 129.6±36.1 and 50.0±11.5 h for the aborted and non-pregnant does, respectively. Mean duration of oestrus for the aborted and non-pregnant does was 46.9±9.6 and 38.7±4.3 h, respectively. The first and second post-abortion oestrous cycle lengths were 6.5±0.5 and 12.5±8.5 days, respectively. While the first and second post-treatment cycle lengths in the non-pregnant does was 22.5±1.2 and 21.3±0.3 days, respectively. It is concluded that a single dose of 7.5 mg PGF is sufficient to induce abortion and oestrus simultaneously in SR goats. However, the post-abortion cycles are short.
 
 
 
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