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Articles by P.G. Reddy
Total Records ( 9 ) for P.G. Reddy
  E.S. Soliman , E. Taha , K.D. Infante , K. Laboy , M.A. Sobieh and P.G. Reddy
  Poultry industry usually exposing birds to a variety of actions and stressors includs fasting for gastrointestinal emptying before transportation and where birds are often exposed to high environmental temperature during the summer months. These environmental stressors may have influences on bird performance and susceptibility to pathogens such as Salmonella enteritidis by altering the intestinal micrbiota and changes in the gut integrity. Approach: This research was conducted to show that acute stressors in the poultry production can induce changes in the normal intestinal microbiota and epithelium structure and execratory functions, which may cause an increase in the opportunities of attachment of Salmonella enteritidis. Results: Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of 24 h feed withdrawal with 24 h exposure to high temperature (30°C) on intestinal characteristics of broilers. Attachment of Salmonella enteritidis to ileal tissue was determined using an in vitro ileal loop assay. Changes in commensally intestinal microbial populations were determined using gel electrophoresis and alterations in ileal morphology were determined histologically. The results showed that attachment of Salmonella enteritidis to ileal tissues increased by 1.5 logs (9.05 log10 Vs 7.59 log10 Salmonella enteritidis/g of ileal tissue; p = 0.0006) in broilers fasted for 24 h also, ileal tissues from birds subjected to 30°C for 24 h had increased the attachment of Salmonella enteritidis (8.77 log10 Vs 8.50 log10 Salmonella enteritidis/g of ileum; p = 0.01) compared with birds held at 23°C. Exposure to 30°C for 24 h also altered the microbial structure in the ileum and cecum. Where subjecting birds to 30°C for 24 h reduced the crypt depth (6.0 Vs 7.8 μm, respectively; p = 0.002), but it had no effect on villus height or villus: Crypt ratio. Conclusion: The findings of the experiment explained the mechanisms by which stressors alters the normal intestinal characterization and induces susceptibility to enteric infection. Future work should focus on the use of prophylactic measures to reduce the stress conditions causing alteration of the intestinal microbiota and changes in gut integrity like considering the probiotic organisms the offer a promising solution for reducing pathogen colonization when fed orally.
  Essam S. Soliman , E.G. Taha , M.A.A. Sobieh and P.G. Reddy
  Problem statement: Poultry industry is intensive and consistently applies an all-in, all-out system with the aim of minimizing infection pressure and targeting specific pathogens like Salmonella which remains one of the leading causes of food-borne illness, many questions regarding the introduction and persistence in animal production still remain. Therefore disinfection during production break is a routine part of the biosecurity programs of poultry houses. The correct usage of disinfectants is an important key of a successful biosecurity program in poultry farms and in-turn the role of the scientist was to evaluate the efficacy of these disinfection programs. Approach: In this study five commercial disinfectants [Green work (green non anionic surfactant), Sanidate RTU (hydrogen peroxide compound), Hi-yeild®consan 20® (phenolic compound), Tektrol® (quaternary ammonium compound) and Kreso®D (phenolic compound)] were evaluated against Salmonella typhimurium in two different experimental conditions. In Experiment I, S. typhimurium was inoculated into fresh poultry litter (aluminum trays L: 30 cm x W: 25 cm x D: 6 cm filled with wood shavings) by inoculums size of ~107 CFU mL-1 and then mixed with 100 g of fresh poultry droppings. Sample sizes of 3 g were obtained daily for the bacterial counts. Green work achieved100% killing of S. typhimurium by day 7 (p≤0.0001); Sanidate RTU achieved100% killing by day 6 (p≤0.001); Hi-yield® Consan®, Tektrol® and Kreso® D achieved100% killing by day 5 (p≤0.001). Disinfectants were also compared to each other in their efficacy each day. At day 1, Green work was inferior to all other disinfectants at (p≤0.05). On day 2, Kreso® D was significantly superior to Tektrol®, Hi-yield® Consan®, Sanidate RTU and Green work at p≤0.01, p≤0.01, p≤0.01, p≤0.005; respectively. At day 4 Kreso® D was significantly superior to Hi-yield® Consan® at p≤0.01, Tektrol® was also significantly superior to Green work at p≤0.01. In experiment II; MIC use-dilution test was used to evaluate the five disinfectants against S. typhimurium (~107CFU mL-1) in the absence of organic matter. Results: Hourly samples were collected for the bacterial counts. Maximum efficacy (100% killing efficacy against S. typhimurium) was achieved for Green Work after 16 h (p≤0.0001), with Sanidate RTU after 8 h (p≤0.0001), with Hi-yield® Consan® and Kreso® D after 2 h at (p≤0.0001) and with Tektrol® after 4 h (p≤0.0001). In presence of organic matter Green work and Sanidate RTUachieved 100% killing efficacy against S. typhimurium after 16 h (p≤0.0001), Hi-yield® Consan® and Kreso® D after 2 h at (p≤0.0001); Tektrol® after 8 h (p≤0.0001). When disinfectants were compared to each other in relation to time; we found that there was no kind of significance between their efficacies. When compared to other tested disinfectants, Kreso® D which is a phenolic compound revealed superior activity against Salmonella typhimurium in the two experiments. Conclusion: The study showed that many disinfectants regardless to their constituents continues to give a very powerful efficacy against the most virulent bacterial strains, but the question remain can they be used in the presence of live birds. Further studies are required to explore the safety and the efficacy of these compounds when applied in poultry farms in the presence of live birds.
  A.M. Hanafy , H.A. Khalil , Omnia E. Kilany , Marwa A. Hassan , Mohamed S. Yusuf , Abdelazim Ibrahim , I.M. Fares , A.M. Hassan and P.G. Reddy
  The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of an Oil Mixture (OM) supplementation in drinking water to enhance the performance of older Japanese quail. Five hundred forty Japanese quail, 40 weeks old, were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups (90 female and 45 male/group) that received OM at 0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mL/L–1 of drinking water during the experimental period of 42 days. Egg production, egg quality, fertility and hatchability percentages were evaluated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides were estimated. Livers were examined for histopathological changes. Results showed that birds received 0.5 mL/L–1 of OM had significantly improved in most studied traits compared to the other treated and control groups. Laying rate, fertility, hatchability percentage, yolk index, internal quality unit and ovarian yellow follicle number were superior in 0.5 group than the other experimental groups. In contrast, birds received 1 or 2 mL had significantly higher concentrations of ALT and AST than birds that received 0.5 mL or control birds. Serum chemistry analysis revealed no significant effects due to treatments on kidney functions. Histopathological findings revealed disruption of normal hepatic architecture in birds that received 1 or 2 mL of OM supplementation compared to 0.5 mL and control birds. Our findings suggest that 0.5 mL/L–1 of OM could be enough and useful in improving productive and physiological performance of laying Japanese quail.
  S. Essam Soliman , P.G. Reddy , A.A. Mohamed Sobeih , H. Busby and E. Sara Rowe
  A total of 416 environmental samples (litter, water, swabs and air) were collected from commercial poultry farms located in Ismailia and Zagazig Governorates during the period January through July of 2008. These samples were tested by conventional cultural methods and then were confirmed biochemically. The bacterial isolates that were identified included: Citrobacter spp., E. coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aureuginosa, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus fecalis and Streptococcus pneumonie. The suspected colonies for Salmonella spp. were cultured onto a selective media (Selenite F broth and S-S agar) for further confirmation. Prevalence and frequencies of the microorganisms were calculated to detect the most predominant microorganisms. Swab samples showed higher prevalence of bacterial isolates (37.7%). Samples collected from closed house system had higher prevalence of bacterial isolates in swab samples (20.5%) as compared to samples from open house system (17.2%). Citrobacter sp (8.3%), Proteus vulgaris (8.3%) and Pseudomonas aureuginosa (16.7%) predominated in litter samples from closed house system. E. coli (35.7%) predominated in air samples of closed house system. Klebsiella oxytoca (10.0%) predominated in water of open house system. Salmonella sp (35%) predominated in swab samples of open house system. Shigella sp prevalence was similar between water samples of opened house system (6.0%) and swab samples of closed system (5.9%). Staphylococcus aureus (50.0%) predominated in air of closed house system. Streptococcus pneumonie (17.8%) predominated in air samples of open house system. Streptococcus fecalis (5.3%) predominated in litter samples of open house system. A total of 266 environmental and non-environmental samples were collected during the period September of 2008 through January of 2009 by the Alabama State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory as part of the National poultry improvement plan. These samples were examined using highly selective media for Salmonella sp The positive samples were confirmed biochemically and sero-grouped. The highest prevalence of Salmonella spp. was in environmental swabs (38.6%) with special reference to slat swabs (10.2%), fans (8.1%) and sills (6.9%). The highest predominant group of Salmonella spp. was C3 (50.4%) followed by group B (24.0%) and group C2 (13.9%).
  S. Essam Soliman , C. Kilpatrick , S. Mohamed Ahmed , M. Eman Abouelhassan , R. Nimmanapelli and P.G. Reddy

A CASE OF PLAGIARISM (Case No. 05012013)

Professor John J. Maurer from The University of Georgia 244, 5th Avenue, No. 2218 NY 10001, New York USA pointed out a plagiarism in a paper published in International Journal of Poultry Science Volume 8 Number 2, 156-160, 2009.

On the receipt of Professor John J. Maurer’s letter, the case forwarded to the Ethics Committee of the Science Alert. As per the report of the Ethics Committee, article entitled "Allelotyping PCR for Detection and Screening of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis and Typhimurium" authored by S. Essam Soliman, C. Kilpatrick, S. Mohamed Ahmed, M. Eman Abouelhassan, R. Nimmanapelli and P.G. Reddy Department of Pathobiology, CVMNAH, Tuskegee University, USA published in International Journal of Poultry Science Volume 8 Number 2, 156-160, 2009, contains substantial sections of text that have been taken verbatim from earlier publication without clear and unambiguous attribution.

Science Alert considers misappropriation of intellectual property and duplication of text from other authors or publications without clear and unambiguous attribution totally unacceptable.

Plagiarism is a violation of copyright and a serious breach of scientific ethics. The Editors and Publisher have agreed to officially retract this article.

Science Alert is highly thankful to Professor John J. Maurer The University of Georgia 244, 5th Avenue, No. 2218 NY 10001, New York USA, for pointing out this plagiarism.

Detail of article from which text has been copied by S. Essam Soliman, C. Kilpatrick, S. Mohamed Ahmed, M. Eman Abouelhassan, R. Nimmanapelli and P.G. Reddy:

Yang Hong, Tongrui Liu, Margie D Lee, Charles L Hofacre, Marie Maier, David G White, Sherry Ayers, Lihua Wang, Roy Berghaus, John J Maurer, 2008. Rapid screening of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg and Typhimurium using a serologically-correlative allelotyping PCR targeting the O and H antigen alleles from BMC Microbiology, 8: 178, 2008. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-8-178

  E.S. Soliman , P.G. Reddy , R. Nimmanapelli and E.M. Abouelhassan
  Six experiments were conducted during which a total of 12 congenic lines homozygous for various B-complex alleles, were challenged by intraperitoneal injection with either of two isolates of Salmonella enteritidis. Because these B alleles were expressed on a common genetic background and mortality differences among lines were statistically significant in three of the six trials and morbidity (body weight) differences were significant in another trial; it is suggested that B-complex alleles affect the degree of immunity to these isolates. When all lines and trials were compared, line 342 (BC/BC) emerged as particularly resistant, whereas lines 253 (B18/B18) and 254 (B15/B15) were more susceptible. The remainders of the lines were of neutral (intermediate) susceptibility. Sex did not appear to influence the results of the challenge, but more resistance was observed with an increase in the age at inoculation. Although the mechanism that determined this resistance is unknown it was present as early as 3 d of age and it is suggested that complement proteins, which have a known role in protection from bacterial infections and are encoded by genes located within the B-complex, or acute phase proteins, may account for these observations.
  A.M. Hassan , H. May AbdelAzeem and P.G. Reddy
  Effects of water supplements, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), potassium chloride (KCl) and acetic acid were evaluated on the performance and immune system of chronically heat-stressed broiler chicks. Two hundred day old broiler chicks were allotted to one of the four groups (n = 50); 1) control [no supplements], 2) NaHC03, 0.5%, 3) KCl, 0.15% and 4) acetic acid, 1.5 mL/Liter. All chicks were kept in a controlled environmental chamber maintained at 33±2oC from day one to 6 weeks (wks) of age. Significantly higher weight gains coincided with decreased feed conversion ratios for all the supplemented groups as compared to control group at 2, 4 and 6 wks of age. Bursal index, percentage weights of thymus and spleen in relation to body weight and natural agglutinin levels, an indicator of humoral immunity were higher but the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, an indicator of stress was lower for the supplemented groups as compared to control group. Total aerobic spore formers and Enterobactraecae counts in the intestinal swab samples were higher in control group than supplemented groups. Intestinal pH was lower at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age but water consumption at 5 and 6 wks of age tended to be higher in acetic acid treated group as compared to other groups. Overall, the results indicated significant improvement in the performance and immune response of chronically heat-stressed broiler chicks given the water supplements, acetic acid being slightly superior to NaHCO3 and KCl.
  Essam S. Soliman , Ensaf G. Taha , M.A.A. Sobieh and P.G. Reddy
  Combined effects of temperature, relative humidity and litter pH in the presence or absence of organic matter on the survival of S. typhimurium over time was studied. The litter (L: 30 cm x W: 25 cm x D: 6 cm aluminum trays filled with wood shavings) was inoculated with S. typhimurium at initial concentration of 4.8 x 107CFU/ml, then litter trays were placed in a room with microclimate similar to that of a naturally ventilated poultry house. The periodical measurement of S. typhimurium population in poultry litter in relation to the ambient environmental conditions revealed that: in the absence of organic matter; there was a non-significant (p<0.99) negative correlation (-0.07 at confidence level 95%) between ambient temperature and survival of S. typhimurium, a non-significant (p<0.53) positive correlation (+0.04 at confidence level 95%) between relative humidity and survival of S. typhimurium population and a highly significant (p<0.005) positive correlation (+0.67 at confidence level 95%) between litter pH and survival. In the presence of organic matter, there was a non-significant (p<0.55) negative correlation (-0.22 at confidence level 95%) between ambient temperature and survival, a highly significant (p<0.0001) negative correlation (-0.12 at confidence level 95%) between relative humidity and survival and a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation (+0.48 at confidence level 95%) between litter pH and survival. The study suggested that increased litter pH and relative humidity rather than temperature presented a great influence on the increased survival of S. typhimurium. New management practice that will reduce litter pH and relative humidity should be considered in the control plans of Salmonellosis in poultry farms.
  Ensaf G. Taha , A. Mohamed , K.K. Srivastava and P.G. Reddy
  The main objective of this study was to standardize and compare rapid methods for the detection of Salmonella in meat samples using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS) followed by culturing in CHROMagar Plus media, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Ten-fold dilutions of bacterial suspension (S. typhymurium, ATCC13311) were prepared from the original concentration of 1.6 x 106cfu/ml. Chicken wing samples of 25 g each negative for Salmonella were spiked with six different concentrations of bacteria ranging from 106 to 101. These samples were incubated in buffered peptone water for 4 h as pre-enrichment step and were tested repeatedly. The IMS technique involved the use of paramagnetic polystyrene microscopic beads coated with purified antibodies against Salmonella. The CHROMagar Plus media containing chromomeric substrate facilitated detection of Salmonella species from other flora. The Assurance EIA Salmonella Kit with polyclonal antibodies directed against Salmonella facilitated easy and rapid detection. In the RT-PCR primers targeting invA gene was used which amplified a 378 bp fragment. Comparing to conventional culture method (4 days), CHROMagar plate culture following IMS showed light mauve to mauve-colored colonies of Salmonella in 23 h with high sensitivity (99%) at 1.6 cfu/ml. IMS-ELISA combination also showed high sensitivity (75%) at 1.6 x 103 cfu/ml in 8 h and minimized cross-reactivity with many Enterobacteraceae. The combination of IMS with RT-PCR took less than 7 h and was even more sensitive (100%) at 1.6 cfu/ml. Sensitivities of IMS-RT-PCR and IMS-CHROMagar were higher compared to IMS-ELISA. IMS-CHROMagar was easier to perform and detects only living Salmonella. These methods will be highly suitable for routine detection and may significantly assist the processing industry in avoiding costly recalls and the timely investigation of outbreaks.
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