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Articles by P.E. Ndimele
Total Records ( 18 ) for P.E. Ndimele
  C.A. Kumolu-Johnson , P.E. Ndimele , O.A. Ayorinde and T.I. Ojikutu
  The antioxidative and anti-fungal effects of ginger oil on smoked Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus were examined during five week storage at room temperature 25-30°C. The ginger oil was extracted from fresh ginger through hydro-distillation. The fish samples were gutted washed thoroughly and each fish species were divided into three groups. Two groups were spiced with 1.0 and 1.5 mL of ginger oil/kg of fish, respectively before they were smoke dried for 2 h. The third group acts as the control which was not spiced with ginger oil. Chemical and microbiological analyses were performed to investigate quality changes and to determine the shelf stability of the products. The lowest TBA (14.64 mg MDA kg-1) and peroxide (3.91 mEq kg-1) values were recorded in Oreochromis niloticus samples treated with 1.5 mL ginger oil/kg of fish at week 1, while the highest TBA (30.48 mg MDA kg-1) and PV (18.76 mEq kg-1) occurred in the Clarias gariepinus control at week 5. The result also revealed that samples treated with ginger oil had lower mould count than the control but there was no significant different (p≥0.05), when compared to the control after 5 weeks of storage.
  C.A. Kumolu-Johnson and P.E. Ndimele
  Ginger is a rhizome with an established medicinal value. This study seeks to explore its anti-oxidative and anti-fungal properties when added to fish prior to smoking. An experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of ginger (Zingiber officinale) spice mixture on the shelf-life of hot-smoked Clarias gariepinus at different concentrations {0 g of ginger kg-1 of fish (control), 10 g of ginger kg-1 of fish, 20 g of ginger kg-1 of fish and 30 g of ginger kg-1 of fish}. Retardation in lipid oxidation, microbial proliferation and organoleptic qualities were used to assess the efficacy of ginger as an anti-oxidant and anti-fungi in hot-smoked catfish. The fish were divided into four batches and coated with appropriate quantities of ginger paste to give concentrations of 0 g of ginger kg-1 fish, 10 g of ginger kg-1 fish, 20 g of ginger kg-1 fish and 30 g of ginger kg-1 fish. They were then smoked for 8 h, cooled and stored in ambient temperature (25-30°C) for 21 days. Chemical, microbial and sensory evaluation studies were carried out on them. The anti-oxidative activity of ginger was evident from lower Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA) and peroxide values of treated samples relative to untreated (control) samples. The lowest TBA (2.88±0.35) and peroxide (5.87±1.48) values were recorded in 30 g of ginger kg-1 of fish while the highest TBA (4.08±0.51) and peroxide (13.38±1.97) occurred in the control. The results also showed that samples treated with ginger paste had lower microbial load than the control. Ginger has anti-oxidative and anti-fungal properties which can extend the shelf-life of hot-smoked Clarias gariepinus.
  A.A. Jimoh , E.O. Clarke , O.O. Whenu , M.A. Anetekhai and P.E. Ndimele
  Studies on the morphological characterization of the African river prawn, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii and the brackish water prawn, Macrobrachium macrobrachion from Badagry Creek in Southwest Nigeria were carried out. Samples of M. vollenhovenii (n = 275) and M. macrobrachion (n = 790) were collected from Badagry Creek. Morphometric analysis showed that M. vollenhovenii and M. macrobrachion exhibited positive allometric growth with “b” values of 3.11 and 2.58, respectively. M. vollenhovenii (6.29±3.48 g) was larger than M. macrobrachion (4.75±2.43 g). The males of both species were larger than the females. The correlation between Total Length (TL) and Body Weight (BW) was high and positive (M. vollenhovenii, r = 0.95; M. macrobrachion, r = 0.87). A significant (p<0.05) positive correlation occurred between TL and Carapace Length, (CL) (M. vollenhovenii, r = 0.83; M. macrobrachion, r = 0.66) and between TL and rostral length, RL (M. vollenhovenii, r = 0.73; M. macrobrachion, r = 0.79). Dorsally, M. vollenhovenii and M. macrobrachion had 6-14 (mean = 9.84±1.35) and 7-15 (mean = 9.38±0.84) rostral spines, respectively while on the ventral side of the rostrum, M. vollenhovenii had 3-8 spines (mean = 5.15±0.76) and M. macrobrachion had 3-10 spines (mean = 5.34±0.61). Female M. macrobrachion and M. vollenhovenii predominated with sex ratios of 1:3.73 (p<0.05) and 1:1.05 (p>0.05), respectively. There appears to be exploitation pressure on these prawns in Badagry Creek. Therefore, there is need for some management measures to be taken.
  P.E. Ndimele and C.A. Kumolu-Johnson
  Racial characterisation of fish species is important for taxonomic classification. The physico-chemical parameters of Ologe, Badagry and Epe Lagoons, Lagos, Nigeria were investigated and the morphometric characters of Cynothrissa mento from the three lagoons were compared to assess the possibility of this fish species from the three lagoons belonging to the same sub-population. The study was conducted between May, 2009 and April, 2010 and monthly sampling of fish and water was done in each sampling site. 9 physico-chemical parameters and 7 morphometric characters were assessed. A total of 386 specimens (Ologe 106, Badagry 174 and Epe 106) of C. mento were collected from the landings of the local fisher folks from the sampling sites. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in all the physico-chemical parameters measured among the sampling sites except Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). Coefficient of difference revealed that the C. mento from the three lagoons are uniform in all the morphometric parameters examined which means that the specimens from the three sampling sites belong to the same sub-population. Three morphometric characters (body depth, head length and head depth) with high correlations demonstrated isometric growth, that is, they were best described by simple linear regressions.
  P.E. Ndimele , C.A. Kumolu- Johnson and M.A. Anetekhai
  Heavy metals remain pollutants of great concern to ecologists because of its persistent nature in the environment and its adverse effects on aquatic biota and man. The levels of four heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn and Pb) were investigated between January, 2010 and December, 2010 in three sampling stations (Agbara, Imude and Obele) of Ologe Lagoon. The metal contents were measured in water column, sediment and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus. The highest concentration (972.99±60.93 μg L-1) of Zn in water was recorded in Obele while the lowest value (581.14±42.36 μg L-1) occurred in Imude. The concentrations of the heavy metals in sediments of all the sampling stations was significant (p<0.05). The highest concentrations of Cu (1.25±0.09 μg g-1) and Pb (4.11±0.29 μg g-1) in sediment were recorded in Obele while their lowest values (Cu, 0.55±0.05 μg g-1; Pb, 0.13±0.02 μg g-1) occurred in Imude. The values of the heavy metals in C. nigrodigitatus from Agbara was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the values recorded in the other sampling stations. The highest concentrations of Fe (44.30±1.76 μg g-1), Zn (26.43±1.37 μg g-1) and Pb (0.17±0.04 μg g-1) in C. nigrodigitatus were reported in Agbara while their lowest values (Fe, 24.41±1.01 μg g-1; Zn, 14.82±0.98 μg g-1; Pb, 0.02±0.01 μg g-1) occurred in Obele. Seasonal dynamics had effect on metal content of water and sediment but its effect was not significant (p>0.05) in C. nigrodigitatus except for Cu. This study has shown that Ologe Lagoon contains heavy metals. However, these heavy metals are still within the limits considered safe for human consumption.
  F.G. Owodeinde , P.E. Ndimele and M.A. Anetekhai
  This study was conducted to assess the reproductive performance, growth rate and nutrient utilization capacities of pure breed Heterobranchus bidorsalis (H. bidorsalis ♀ x H. bidorsalis ♂) and its hybrid (H. bidorsalis ♀ x C. gariepinus ♂) (Clariabranchus) induced with synthetic hormone (ovaprim) and pituitary of male and female Heterobranchus bidorsalis. In this study, 3 female Heterobranchus bidorsalis, 3 male Heterobranchus bidorsalis and 3 male Clarias gariepinus were used for the experiment. One female H. bidorsalis induced with ovaprim produced eggs which were divided into two equal halves. Each half was fertilized separately by milt from H. bidorsalis and C. gariepinus to produce pure breed and hybrid, respectively. A similar crossing was done for the female H. bidorsalis induced with Male Pituitary Extract (MPE) and Female Pituitary Extract (FPE). Percentage fertilization and hatching rate of pure breed induced with ovaprim were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the other genetic crosses. The highest values for weight gain (5.46±1.58 g), average daily growth (0.39±0.11 g) and specific growth rate (1.04±0.16%/day) occurred in pure breed induced with MPE. The lowest values for these growth parameters were obtained in the hybrid induced with FPE. Feed intake, protein intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio varied significantly (p<0.05) among the treatments. This study has shown that the pure breeds and hybrids induced with ovaprim and MPE performed better than those induced with FPE. Therefore, they are recommended for commercial aquaculture.
  K.A. Fakoya , F.G. Owodeinde , S.L. Akintola , M.A. Adewolu , M.A. Abass and P.E. Ndimele
  The importance of seaweeds cuts across various environmental, ecologic, socio-economic benefits and services as food for man, in the phycocolloids and expanding phycosupplement industries, as sink for excess carbon dioxide and excess nutrients; for sustainable energy generation and as fossil fuel substitutes. In view of this, seaweeds could become an important economic niche for Nigeria and other coastal African countries provided adequate research is undertaken in studying their diversity, biochemical compositions and potentials for culture in order to harness the numerous opportunities which can be derived.
  C.A. Kumolu-Johnson and P.E. Ndimele
  Fish is an important source of animal protein especially in African countries, where the combine forces of high cost, disease, low genetic potentials of indigenous species among other factors have raised the cost of livestock almost beyond the reach of the low income groups. Fish becomes the readily accessible source of animal protein but this alternative is also threatened by poor post-harvest techniques in African countries, which have resulted in massive losses. The losses can be physical, economical or nutritional. It is important to develop effective post-harvest technology to reduce the widening gap between fish supply and demand, which have been increasing because of poor post-harvest techniques.
  C.A. Kumolu-Johnson , P.E. Ndimele and F.I. Olasehinde
  Clarias gariepinus is a fish that is of high demand in Nigeria. However, a lot of the output from wild and aquaculture deteriorate in quality because of improper preservation methods. This study investigated the effects of fresh garlic (Allium sativum) on lipid oxidation and microbial growth of hot-smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Three garlic concentrations and control (0 (control), 10, 30 and 50 g garlic kg-1 fish) were prepared, hot-smoked and stored for 28 days at ambient temperature of 20-26°C. During the storage period, the samples were subjected to weekly chemical and microbial analyses. The highest Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) (4.32±0.39 mg malonaldehyde kg-1 sample), peroxide (12.31±2.06 milliequivalent peroxide kg-1 of sample) and microbial load (12.03±0.56 Log10 CFU g-1 fish) were recorded in the control while the lowest peroxide (6.91±1.08) and microbial count (11.15±0.43 Log10 CFU g-1 fish) occurred in sample with 50 g garlic kg-1 fish. However, the lowest TBA (3.06±0.26 mg malonaldehyde kg-1 sample) was observed in sample containing 30 g garlic kg-1 fish. The results of analyses suggest that fresh garlic possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, which can extend the shelf life of Clarias gariepinus.
  F.G. Owodeinde , P.E. Ndimele , A. Jenyo-oni and O.B. Onyenania
  The production of fish seed of good quality remains one of the major challenges of modern aquaculture in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to determine the survival rate, fertilization rate, growth performance and feed utilization of the reciprocal hybrids of Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus, bidorsalis. Two genetic crosses were made: C. gariepinus♀xH. bidorsalis♂ and H. bidorsalis♀xC. gariepinus♂. The experiment was conducted in two phases; the first phase was the artificial propagation of the fish species using synthetic hormone and rearing the fry for 14 days; the second phase was rearing the 14 days old fry for 35 days. The first phase of the experiment examined the survival of frys in each experimental unit (genetic cross) while in the second phase, growth and nutrient utilization were investigated. The result showed that the highest (%) fertilization (81.32±4.76%), hatching rate (73.89±4.45) and (%) survival (78.36±4.79%) occurred in H. bidorsalis♀xC. gariepinus♂ and the differences were significant (p<0.05). Percentage weight gain and specific growth rate were the two growth and nutrient utilization parameters that showed significant difference (p<0.05) between the two reciprocal hybrids. The result of this study shows that the reciprocal hybrids of C. gariepinus and H. bidorsalis can be used for commercial aquacultural practices.
  A.A. Jimoh , P.E. Ndimele , I.P. Lemomu and U.A. Shittu
  The food and feeding habit of the gladiator swim crab, Callinectes pallidus was investigated in Ojo Creek, Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria between April and June, 2010. The stomach content analysis was carried out using the frequency of occurrence method, numerical method and further confirmed using the Geometric Index of Importance (GII). Forty two (representing 14%) of the 300 specimens of the crabs examined had empty stomachs. The crabs fed on a variety of food items which included fishes, molluscs, crustaceans, higher plant materials, algae and diatom. Fishes were the most important food item constituting 48.2 by number, 75.6% by occurrence and 87.5% using the GII. This was closely followed by mollusc accounting for 36.5 by number, 71.3% by occurrence with a GII of 76.2%. The least item consumed was diatom with 0.7 by number, 11.6 by occurrence and 8.7% using GII. Fishes still remained the most important feed item relative to size and sex; however there was slight variation in food and feeding habit relative to size. The smaller crabs (carapace width <3.99 cm) fed more on algae and diatom than medium size (4.00, 4.99 cm carapace width) and large crabs (carapace width >5.00 cm). There was also a slight variation in food and feeding habit relative to sex with males consuming more fishes (with 53.3 by number, 82.4 by occurrence and 96% using GII), than females (41.4 by number, 70.9% by occurrence and 79.4 using GII). Using the frequency of occurrence method the females (with 53.4%) consumed higher plant materials than the males (38.2%). This study revealed that Callinectes pallidus is an omnivore and an opportunistic feeder.
  P.E. Ndimele
  Oil spillage as a result of petroleum industry activities and pipe-line vandalization by saboteurs is a frequent occurrence in oil-producing regions of the world. Conventional oil spill clean-up techniques involve physical and chemical processes that do more damage to the aquatic ecosystem than the oil spill itself. Consequently, the need arises to evolve or develop a more environment-friendly technique that will not only clean-up the environment but also restore the aquatic ecosystem to its status before the oil spill. Phytoremediation, which involves the use of plant to detoxify polluted site, appears to be promising in this regard. It is environment-friendly as well as cost-effective but may take more time than the conventional methods because it is a natural process.
  P.E. Ndimele and A.A. Jimoh
  A passive phytoremediation study was carried out between April, 2007 and March, 2008 at three sampling stations; Ibiye Jetty, Obele and Idoluwo in Ologe Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria to ascertain the extent of heavy metal pollution and the potential of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, (Mart.) Solms) as a phytoremediant. The study assessed the levels of some heavy metals (Pb, Fe and Zn) in water and sediment (abiotic monitors) in comparison with their levels in E. crassipes (biomonitor) for phytoremediation. The observed values of the heavy metals in water, sediment and water hyacinth of Ologe Lagoon did not vary significantly (p>0.05) among the sampling stations. However, the concentrations of these metals in sediment were about 3-32 times higher than the values recorded in water. Similarly, bioconcentration factor (BCF) showed that E. crassipes accumulated the heavy metals from water in about 3-28 folds inspite of the low levels of these metals in the water column. This study showed that E. crassipes can accumulate heavy metals even when the concentrations of the metals in the abiotic components (water and sediment) of the aquatic environment is low, suggesting that E. crassipes can be used in phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted aquatic ecosystems.
  P.E. Ndimele , C.A. Kumolu-Johnson and M.A. Anetekhai
  Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) which have been described as the most troublesome weed in the world have been linked to several problems like obstruction to water transportation, micro-habitat for disease vectors, obstruction to fishing and reduction in biodiversity. However, recent studies have also shown that this macrophyte can be used for the production of paper, biogas, fertilizer, fish feed and in the clean-up of polluted environment (phytoremediation). It becomes important to fully harness the potentials of this aquatic macrophyte, which could change its status from a weed to an income-generating plant.
  P.E. Ndimele , A. Jenyo-Oni and C.C. Jibuike
  The acute toxicity of Nigeria crude oil (Bonny Light), reference compound (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS)), dispersant (Nalco-D4106) and dispersant-plus-crude oil to Tilapia guineensis were studied. Tests were conducted over a 96 h period after acclimatization of individual in the laboratory. There were initial ranges finding test to determine the concentrations of the toxicants to be administered on the test organisms in the definitive tests. The tests were semi-static bioassays in which the exposure media were replaced every 24 h, at which the T. guineensis were also examined for mortality. Tilapia guineensis were exposed to he following concentrations of crude oil (0, 40, 80, 160, 240 and 320 mg L-1), SDS (0, 5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg L-1), dispersant (0, 1500, 2000, 4000, 7500 and 10000 mg L-1) and dispersant-plus-crude oil (0, 540, 1080, 2160, 3240 and 4320 mg L-1). The 96 h LC50 of Bonny Light crude oil, SDS, dispersant and dispersant-plus-crude oil were 125.89, 25.12, 3162.28 and 1995.26 mg L-1, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulphate was the most toxic of the toxicants and the dispersant (Nalco-D4106) reduced the toxicity of Bonny Light crude oil by 16 folds.
  C.A. Kumolu-Johnson and P.E. Ndimele
  This study examined some limnological properties of Ologe Lagoon and the levels of six heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe and Cr) were also assessed in water, sediment and a commercially important fish, Oreochromis niloticus from the lagoon. The study lasted between July, 2010 and April, 2011 spanning both dry and wet season. Some of the physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen and alkalinity) did not show significant (p>0.05) monthly variation. However, others (turbidity, total hardness, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand) showed significant (p<0.05) monthly variation. All the water quality variables investigated in this study did not show seasonal variation except turbidity, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand. The concentrations of five of the heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Fe) showed significant monthly variation in water and sediment. The range of concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Fe in this study is 26.68±2.65-44.79±6.11, 29.41±2.52-94.40±12.08, 4.67±1.45-16.48±1.18, 6.43±1.03-21.60±2.08 and 60±15-290±32 μg L-1, respectively. The concentrations of Zn and Fe in Oreochromis niloticus showed significant monthly variation and their range of values are Zn, 0.19±0.15-1.69±0.33 mg kg-1 and Fe, 5.08±1.50-12.56±3.12 mg kg-1. This study has shown that these heavy metals are present in Ologe Lagoon, though, their levels are still within the tolerable limits.
  P.E. Ndimele and C.A. Kumolu-Johnson
  Some physicochemical parameters and heavy metal content of water, sediment and Cynothrissa mento from Badagry Creek were studied for eight months (July, 2010-October, 2010; January, 2011-April, 2011) spanning wet and dry seasons. The heavy metals investigated are Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe and Cr while the physicochemical parameters are temperature, pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), salinity, turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), alkalinity and hardness. All the physicochemical parameters except temperature and dissolved oxygen exhibited significant (p<0.05) monthly variation. However, six of the physicochemical parameters (total suspended solids, turbidity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity and hardness) representing 50% showed significant (p<0.05) seasonal variation. All the heavy metals studied except Cr showed significant (p<0.05) monthly variation in at least one of the environmental compartments (water column, sediment and Cynothrissa mento). The range of concentrations of the six heavy metals in Cynothrissa mento are Cu (0.06±0.02-0.91±0.19 mg kg-1), Zn (0.19±0.04-1.69±0.33 mg kg-1), Cd (0.01±0.01-0.05±0.02 mg kg-1), Pb (0.01±0.01-0.12±0.01 mg kg-1), Fe (4.33±0.43-16.88±1.32 mg kg-1) and Cr (0.01±0.01-0.05±0.02 mg kg-1). Most of the values of the physicochemical parameters and heavy metals were within the limits recommended by World Health Organisation, Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency and United States Environmental Protection Agency except alkalinity, hardness and Fe in sediment. This study shows that the water quality variables of Badagry Creek can sustain fish and the heavy metal content is not harmful to fish and man yet.
  P.E. Ndimele , C.A. Kumolu-Johnson , K.S. Chukwuka , C.C. Ndimele , O.A. Ayorinde and O.R. Adaramoye
  This study was carried out to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) to absorb and translocate iron (Fe) and copper (Cu). The study was conducted with three concentration gradients of Fe and Cu at 10, 15, 20 mg L-1 and control (no metal). The whole set-up was carried out in triplicate and the experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The results showed that iron (Fe) had the highest accumulation value in the root (11.22±6.69 mg kg-1), while copper (Cu) had the highest value in the leaf (3.80±0.12 mg kg-1) both occurred at treatment spiked at 20 mg metal/L of water. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05) in metal accumulation among treatments. The Translocation Factor (TF) values for Fe ranged from 0.49±0.57 to 0.68±0.27 in leaf and 0.64±0.17 to 0.77±0.18 in the stem while the TF values for Cu ranged from 0.78±0.08 to 1.12±0.12 in leaf and 0.72±0.32 to 1.09±0.19 in the stem. This reveals that Cu had better translocation capability than Fe. Highest values of Bioconcentration factor (BCF) for Fe and Cu were 2.32±0.65 at 20 mg L-1 and 0.72±0.01 at 15 mg L-1 obtained in the root and leaf respectively, indicating that the accumulation potential of Fe by water hyacinth is higher than Cu. So, according to the accumulation capabilities of the investigated plant (Eichhornia crassipes), this study showed that the plant was found to be a promising candidate for phytoremediation and adequate for bio-monitoring programmes for contaminated water.
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