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Articles by P.A. Onyeyili
Total Records ( 10 ) for P.A. Onyeyili
  E.A. Moses , V.O. Ogugbuaja , P.A. Onyeyili and J.C. Akan
  Organic composition and toxicity of dusts collected in and around Maiduguri metropolis were investigated. High performance liquid chromatographic technique was used to determine the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons (anthracene, naphthalene, benzene and pyridine) in the samples. Haematological parameters, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), White Blood Cell counts (WBC), Haemoglobin estimation (HB) and Red Blood Cell (RBC) counts were used as biomarkers to identify possible toxic effects of exposure to dust samples. Low concentrations (0.0157 ±0.002 and 0.0133 ±0.004 mg g-1) of anthracene and naphthalene were measured on the dust samples while benzene and pyridine were not detected. Intravenous and intratracheal administration of dust decreased significantly (p<0.05) the RBC, Hb and PCV in goats when compared to the control group. The values of WBC however increased when dust was administered intratracheally and intravenously. The result obtained do not suggest any evidence of substantial anthropogenic pollution of this environment
  E.U. Etuk and P.A. Onyeyili
  This study was to determine the effect of salmonella typhimurium infection on the plasma kinetic profile of chloramphenicol in the locally breed goats of Sokoto state, Nortwestern Nigeria. Chloramphenicol administered intravenously at the dose of 25 mg kg-1 body weight to healthy and salmonella typhimurium infected goats; assayed chemically and pharmacokinetic parameters assessed by use of two compartment open model has shown significant changes in the kinetic profile of the drug after the infection. The mean plasma concentrations of the drug were lower in the inoculated goats. The volume of distribution (Vdβ), total body clearance (Cl) and elimination constant (β) were significantly higher while the distribution half life (t½α), elimination half life (t½β) and the Area Under the Curve (AUC) were significantly reduced after the infection. Salmonella typhimurium infection has altered the distribution of chloramphenicol, increased the loss of the drug and reduced its mean residence time in the body of the goats.
  Y.A. Geidam , A.G. Ambali and P.A. Onyeyili
  Resistance of some bacteria, especially some stains of E. coli to common antimicrobial agents has created an urgent need to develop alternative antimicrobial drugs from herbs that are safe, cheap and may overcome the resistance of the pathogens. The crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf which is known to possess some antibacterial properties was further subjected to sequential fractionation with organic solvents (chloroform, ethyl acetate, normal butanol) of different polarity. This was done until the organic layer was visibly clear to obtain chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol soluble fractions and residual aqueous fraction. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of organic solvents soluble fractions and residual fraction of the extract on some gram positive and gram negative microbes were carried out. The different fractions showed variation in phytochemical constituency and thus in their antibacterial properties. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the extract showed broad spectrum antibacterial properties against all the organisms tested. The fraction also showed a good activity against E. coli at a relatively lower concentration and hence could possibly be use against E. coli infections.
  Y.A. Geidam , A.G. Ambali and P.A. Onyeyili
  The leaves of Psidium guajava is used in folk medicine as an antidiarrhoic in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. It is also employed for the treatment of vertigo and regulation of menstrual periods. World health organization encourages and indicated that studies on medicinal plants should include both identification of chemical constituents and determination of the biological activities of such plants. In this preliminary study, phytochemical and antibacterial properties of crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf were evaluated. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical screening for identification of various classes of active chemical constituents while disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial properties of the extract against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The extract inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but has no effect on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus fecalis organisms. The study revealed some antibacterial properties of the extract that justify the use of the plant in folk medicine. However, further studies need to be carried out to identify the potentials of the plant to be considered as a natural source of antibacterial agent.
  F.I. Abdulrahman , P.A. Onyeyili , U.K. Sandabe and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  Aim of this study to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Vitrex doniana on the peripheral and central nervous systems and possibility to use it as folk medicine. The aqueous extract of Vitex doniana was soxhlet extracted with distilled water and concentrated in vacuo to give a yield of 8.5% w/w. The LD50 following intraperitoneal administration was estimated to be 980 mg kgG1. The aqueous extract of Vitex doniana from the study produced substantial depressant effects on both the peripheral and central nervous system. The aqueous extract induced sleep on its own at dose of 400 mg kgG1 and potentiated sodium thiopental sleeping time in a dose dependant manner. It also showed significant (p< 0.05) muscle relaxant activities and produced analgesia and weal anesthetic effect. The extract was able to confer 80% protection to rats treated with convulsive dose of PTZ, while it conferred 100% protection to rats treated with convulsion dose of strychnine.
  A.C.U. Ezimah , E.A. Nwankwo , G.R.A. Okogun , J.C. Ihongbe , P.A. Onyeyili , A.C. Ene , P.U. Bassi and S.J. Yahaya
  In this case control study, we compared the Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) of two groups of HIV positive persons that consisted of 262 AIDS patients and 158 asymptomatic HIV-antibody positive subjects with a control group of 204 HIV-antibody negative subjects. The mean CD4+ cell counts per cubic millimeter were 187 for the AIDS patients, 495 for the asymptomatic HIV patients and 920 for the control group. TAS levels in mmol L-1 were 0.34 ± 0.08 for AIDS patients, 0.77 ± 0.29 for asymptomatic patients and 1.4 ± 0.13 for controls. The CD4+ counts and TAS showed no gender biases but they differed significantly between the groups; p<0.05. The TAS was progressively depleted in HIV infected persons as the disease progressed from asymptomatic state to AIDS.
  E.U. Etuk , B.M. Agaie , P.A. Onyeyili and C.U. Ottah
  This study examines the effect of aqueous extract of Boswellia dalzielii stem bark on castor oil induced diarrhoea in albino rats. Graded doses of the extract (100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1) were administered orally to three groups of rats (n = 6) before induction of diarrhoea with castor oil. Another two groups of the animals were treated with normal saline (control) and diphenoxylate, a conventional anti-diarrhoea drug respectively. In a separate experiment, an isolated ileum of rabbit was mounted in an organ bath containing aerated Tyrode solution. The tissue was stimulated with acetylcholine (2 μg) and its responses recorded. Various concentrations of the extract (2, 5, 10 and 20 μg) were applied to the tissue and the responses recorded. The responses were similarly recorded when acetylcholine was separately combined with atropine and 10 μg of the extract. The extract produced a significant inhibition of the castor oil induced diarrhoea in the animals in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, the extract relaxed isolated rabbit ileum and reduced the contractions induced by acetylcholine in a manner similar to atropine during the in vitro studies. These findings suggest that, aqueous stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii possesses anti-diarrhoea effect, which may be related to anticholinergic mechanisms.
  B.M. Agaie , P.A. Onyeyili , B.Y. Muhammad and M.J. Ladan
  Some toxic effects of the aqeous leaf extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus was evaluated in rats using changes in haematological and biochemical parameters as well as body weight changes. The results indicate that the extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on haematological parameters except the packed cell volume and lymphocytes. Significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent increase were observed in serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. Serum sodium and potassium were not affected by extract administration. However, total protein, bilirubin, urea and cholesterol as well as body weight values were significantly lower than in the control especially in groups that received higher doses. The results of this study therefore suggest that the leaf extract of this plant could affect feed intake and utilization and also elicit some changes in biochemical parameters of rats.
  P.A. Onyeyili , S. Sani , G.O. Egwu , Q.N. Arukwe and O. Adewale
  The tissue distribution and serum kinetics profile of diminazene aceturate was investigated in non-water deprived and water deprived goats. Water deprivation was observed to increase significantly (P<0.05) the elimination half-life (t½ß ), distribution half-life (t½α), area under the curve (AUC) and volume of distribution (Vdß), and decreased the total body clearance (CL), elimination rate constant (β) and distribution rate constant (α). The drug was distributed to various organs and tissues of the body with the highest concentrations occurring in liver and kidney. Lower concentration of the drug in tissues and organs of water deprived goats at 2 days post injection when compared with those of non-water deprived goat may be due to decreased delivery of the drug to the organs and tissues while the higher concentration noticed in the tissues of water deprived animals later (15 days post treatment) could be due to decreased clearance of the drug from the organs and tissues. Drug residues were still detectable in the tissues of the goats 15 days after drug administration.
  A.T. Elsa , U.A. Osunkwo and P.A. Onyeyili
  The changes in electrical activity of the cerebral cortex during amylobarbitone anaesthesia were studied in rabbits. Electrical activity of the rabbit cerebral cortex recorded (using an oscilloscope), sixty minutes after induction of amylobarbitone (30 mg kg–1, body weight, I.P.) anaesthesia did not significantly differ from control values obtained before anaesthesia or 24 h after recovery from anaesthesia. Amylobarbitone administered @ 60, 90 and 120 mg kg–1 body weight significantly (P<0.05) and dose - dependently decreased the cerebral electrical activity. Therefore, amylobarbitone at the dose of 60 mg kg–1 body weight or higher may cause depression in the electrical activity of the rabbit brain.
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