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Articles by P.A. Abdu
Total Records ( 18 ) for P.A. Abdu
  L. Saidu , A.M. Wakawa , P.A. Abdu , D.F. Adene , H.M. Kazeem , K.C. Ladan , M. Abdu , R.B. Miko , M.Y. Fatihu , J. Adamu and P.H. Mamman
  Cases of Avian Influenza (AI) outbreaks reported and confirmed were extracted from the records of control committees on AI in Kano and Katsina States, Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Pan-African Control of Epizootics (PACE) project office at Kaduna. Information on Al outbreaks in Jigawa State were obtained through a questionnaire. A total of 480,378 birds were lost in 34 outbreaks in the four states under study between the period of January and March 2006. Chickens accounted for more than 99% of all the birds affected followed by guinea fowls and turkeys. More than 60% of the birds affected were adults. The concentrations of poultry farms in Kano metropolis particularly along Gwarzo road where the epidemic was first noticed might have been responsible for the fast spread of the disease within Kano metropolis. It is a common practice to find geese, muscovey ducks and turkeys in one farm in the study area. This practice makes the chickens and turkeys more prone to the disease. From the tract of outbreaks It is possible that the disease spread from Jigawa State to Kano state and from Kano State to other States in the study area and other parts of the country through trade in live birds and poultry by products. For proper diagnosis and control of AI in Nigeria, poultry farmers should be educated on the necessity for prompt disease reporting to veterinarians and appropriate authorities.
  U. Musa , P.A. Abdu , I.I. Dafwang , J.U. Umoh , L. Sa`idu , U.M. Mera and J.A. Edache
  A study on seroprevalence, seasonal occurrence and clinical manifestation of Newcastle Disease Virus (ND) among rural household chickens and Live Birds Markets (LBM) was conducted using haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI) and questionnaires. A total of 1, 208 chickens reared under extensive management system in four Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Plateau State were used for the study. The seroprevalence of ND virus antibodies in rural chickens showed that there was no statistically significant (p > 0.05) difference among the four LGAs and of the 1,208 sera tested, 51.9% had detectable antibodies to NDV but only 14.1% of the chickens had HI antibody titre of > 4log2 which was considered as protective. About 86.2% of the chickens sampled were at risk of suffering from clinical ND. Newcastle disease outbreaks occurred year round in the villages sampled with the highest incidence of 86.6% observed from November to March (Dry season) and September to October, 8.31% (Pre-dry season). During outbreaks of ND, infected birds exhibit the following major clinical signs; nervous signs (32.4%), weakness (16.6%), whitish/greenish diarrhea (16.2%), coughing/sneezing 13.6%, anorexia 9.39% and others 11.8%. It was concluded that the prevalence of ND in the four LGAs of Plateau State is high. At the time of the study over 80% of rural chickens in Plateau State were at risk of dying from ND when exposed to a virulent NDV. It is therefore recommended that vaccination and improved management practices as a means of prevention against ND before the period of outbreaks should be instituted.
  J.S. Rwuaan , P.I. Rekwot , P.A. Abdu , L.O. Eduvie and J.A. Obidi
  Twenty-five cocks consisting of 14 red and 11 white Shikabrown cocks selected on the basis of body weight and antibody titres were infected with 0.2 ml of 106.0 EID50 of a velogenic Kudu 113 strain of Newcastle disease virus intranasally and intraocularly. Twenty-five cocks consisting of 14 red and 11 white Shikabrown cocks served as controls. Cloacal temperatures, live weights and semen samples of both control and infected cocks were taken weekly for six weeks. Semen was collected by abdominal message and evaluated for volume, colour, motility, concentration, percent live spermatozoa and percent total spermatozoa abnormalities. The semen volume of infected red cocks showed a general increase over that of control red cocks. The semen volume of the control white Shikabrown cocks was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the infected white cocks. The white Shikabrown cocks had higher semen volume than the red Shikabrown cocks. The red Shikabrown cocks had slightly better semen colour than the white Shikabrown cocks. The control white cocks had better (p<0.05) spermatozoa motility than the infected white cocks, while the infected red cocks had significantly (p<0.05) spermatozoa motility than the control red cocks. Generally, the white Shikabrown cocks had better spermatozoa motility than the red cocks. The spermatozoa concentration of the control white cocks was consistently higher than that of the infected white cocks; the reverse was the case with the red cocks where the spermatozoa concentration of the infected red cocks was higher than that of the control red cocks. The white cocks had higher spermatozoa concentration than the red cocks. The control white Shikabrown cocks had significantly (p<0.05) higher percent live spermatozoa than the infected white cocks. The infected red Shikabrown cocks had significantly (p<0.05) higher percent live spermatozoa than the control red cocks. The control white cocks had significantly (p<0.05) higher percent live spermatozoa than the control red cocks. The infected red and white Shikabrown cocks had higher percentage total spermatozoa abnormalities than the control red and white cocks. It can be concluded from this study that the white Shikabrown cocks had better semen quality than the red Shikabrown cocks. It is recommended that breeder cocks be routinely vaccinated against Newcastle disease to ensure that the level of antibodies is high enough to prevent adverse effects on semen quality.
  A.O. Ogbe , U. Ditse , I. Echeonwu , K. Ajodoh , S.E. Atawodi and P.A. Abdu
  Proximate and chemical composition of a wild mushroom, Ganoderma sp was evaluated. The phytochemical analysis showed it contained carbohydrates and reducing sugars, steroids, cardiac glycosides, saponins and resins. Proximate analysis revealed crude protein (13.3%±0.2), crude fibre (34.7%±6.4), fats (2.6%±0.3), calcium (0.4%±0.1) and phosphorus (0.3%±0.0). Acidic amino acids (glutamic and aspartic acid) (6.2 g%±1.4 and 5.6 g%± 0.1) and sulphur containing amino acids (cystine and methionine) (1.5 g%±1.3 and 0.7 g%±0.1) were also detected. Of all the essential amino acids detected in the mushroom, leucine was higher (5.3 g%±0.9), followed by phenylalanine (3.7 g%±0.5), alanine (3.3 g%±0.1), isoleucine (3.1g%±0.1), valine (3.0 g%±0.2), lysine (3.0 g%±0.6) and threonine (2.0 g%±0.1). Histidine (1.7 g%±0.3) and methionine (0.7 g%±0.1) were the least. Supplemented diets showed higher leucine content followed by phenylalanine, alanine, isoleucine, valine, lysine, threonine, histidine and methionine. Pullets fed these diets showed improved performance in weight gain and health. The physical qualities of eggs laid by the birds were not affected. Although, feed intake did not show significant difference in all the groups (p>0.05) but the feed to gain ratio was better in A (3.3) and B (3.4) than C (3.5) and D (3.6). This showed supplementation with the mushroom resulted in better feed efficiency and the effect is dose dependent. It was concluded that this mushroom can be a valuable source of feed supplement to improve performance and health.
  J.S. Rwuaan , P.I. Rekwot , P.A. Abdu , L.O. Eduvie and J.A. Obidi
  Fifty 20 week old Shikabrown cocks consisting of 22 red Shikabrown and 28 white Shikabrown cocks were purchased from the National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika and used for this study. Twenty-five of the cocks made up of 12 red and 13 white cocks selected on basis of weight were infected with 2 ml of 106.0 EID5.0 of a Velogenic Kudu 113 strain of Newcastle disease virus intranasally and orally. The remaining twenty-five cocks made up of 14 red and 11 white served as control. Blood samples were taken from the wing veins of both infected and control cocks and centrifuged in a Hermle Z364 centrifuge at 251.6 g for packed cell volume, total protein and Newcastle disease antibody titres. There was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected red Shikabrown cocks. Similarly there was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected white Shikabrown cocks, although the infected cocks had slightly lower values. Total protein did not show any significant difference between the control and infected red cocks and between the control and infected white cocks. The antibody titres of the control red and white cocks were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those of the infected red and white cocks. This finding showed that the challenged red and white cocks had high antibody titres and a slight drop in packed cell volume. The mean antibody titres of 1.9 ±0.7 to 4.6 ±0.4 log2 provided protection to the Shikabrown cocks against the velogenic Newcastle disease virus since none of the challenged cocks died. This study suggests that in an endemic environment like Zaria, poultry farmers keeping Shikabrown chickens should vaccinate them against Newcastle disease. Challenging the red and white Shikabrown cocks with the velogenic Newcastle disease virus increased their protection against the Newcastle disease.
  I.I. Dafwang , U. Musa , P.A. Abdu and J.U. Umoh
  A study was conducted in Plateau State of Nigeria which has two distinct agro-ecological zones; a humid sub-temperate region in the North and a sub-humid hotter region that is part of the Northern Guinea Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria in the South. A sample of 1240 farmers from two Local Governments in each of the two ecological zones were surveyed to assess the poultry population and strains of birds as a prelude to the introduction of interventions for control of Newcastle Disease and other programs for improving rural poultry productivity. Results showed that the farmers owned an average of 20 chickens, 6 ducks, 0.3 turkeys, 1 pigeon and 1.2 guinea fowls per household. Each household reared two or more strains of chicken and most had different types of poultry in the same backyard. There were more Naked neck and long legged chickens in the hotter ecological zone but more Barred plumage strains in the cooler ecological zone.
  I.J. Mbuko , W.I. Musa , S. Ibrahim , L. Sa`idu , P.A. Abdu , S.B. Oladele and H.M. Kazeem
  A five year retrospective study (2004-2008) of the prevalence of Gumboro disease (infectious bursal disease, IBD) and other poultry disease diagnosed at the poultry unit of the Ahmadu Bello University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (ABUVTH), Zaria, Kaduna Nigeria was conducted. A prevalence of 7.26% (107 cases) was recorded out of 1473 cases of poultry disease. Gumboro disease occurred throughout the year in Zaria with a high incidence during the festival periods (July-September, October-December and January-March). The outbreaks of IBD were observed to be 1.3 times more likely to occur in pre-rainy season (April-June). Improved breeds of chickens were 5.8 times more likely to suffer from IBD than free range local chickens with broilers being 5.7 times more likely to suffer from the disease than other type of birds followed by layers kept together with cockerels. The prevalence of IBD is influenced by age of birds with an increase in the likelihood of IBD occurring within the age range of 3-5 week. Birds at 5 weeks old were at highest risk. Chickens with one vaccination history against IBD were 8.2 times more likely to suffer from the disease compared to non-vaccinated chickens. This study recommends that poultry farmers should be encourage to improve on farm biosecurity and ensure that their birds are vaccinated at least twice, before 3 and 5 weeks of age (at 1 and 3 or 2 and 4 weeks of age).
  M.H. Sulaiman , L. Saidu and P.A. Abdu
  This report describe a rare case of congenital defects involving the atresia of the left oviduct with the accompanying abnormalities of ovaries and caecum observed in a 12-month-old layer presented to the Avian Ambulatory Clinic of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. At post mortem, a thin wall oviduct measuring 18 cm long, which opens into the cloaca, was noticed, while the left oviduct was completely absent. In addition the right hypolastic oviduct had a large cyst, with a morphometric measurement of 18 cm by 14 cm by 7 cm and containing 1.25 litres of clear non proteinous fluid, weighing 1.01 kg. When the cystic fluid was cultured in blood agar, at 37oC for 72 h, no bacteria colony growth was observed. However biochemical analysis revealed a composition of electrolytes. The bird also had undeveloped ovaries, malformed illeocaecal junction cranially measuring 6.5 cm. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of congenital abnormalities of the atresia of the left oviduct, malformed caecum and hypoplastic right oviduct in ISA-Brown layer bird in Nigeria.
  I.W. Musa , L. Sa`idu , I.D. Jatau , J. Adamu , M.O. Otu and P.A. Abdu
  Field outbreaks of coccidiosis all over the world were commonly reported in chickens over 3-weeks of age. Outbreak of coccidiosis in birds in the first few weeks of life is becoming increasing important but chickens less than 1-week of age appeared not to be susceptible. This case report describes the clinical signs and gross lesions of coccidiosis as well as its microscopic appearance in a five-day old intensively managed broiler breeder chicks. The outbreak occurred in December, 2009 and was characterized by early onset of an acute disease with high mortality. Other clinical features of the disease were: progressive increase and sudden decline of high chick mortality of up to 50%, ruffled feathers, blood stained whitish to brownish diarrhea, weakness and anorexia. Gross lesions seen were congested carcasses, distended caeca and intestinal segments with blood, mucus and tissue debris; retained yolk sac was also observed in some birds. Whole intestines were submitted to the Protozoology and retained yolk sac to Microbiology Laboratories for investigations. A farm visit revealed very poor housing ventilation and wet litter. Laboratory results confirmed coccidian schizonts and gametocytes from caeca and intestinal scrapings. Escherichia coli was isolated from the yolk sac. High hygienic standards must be maintained in hatcheries and poultry houses, damp and warm litter must be avoided and adequate ventilation should always be provided in poultry houses to prevent coccidiosis.
  I.W. Musa , P.A. Abdu , A.K.B. Sackey , S.B. Oladele , S. Lawal and I.U. Yakubu
  This report describes an outbreak of an acute, highly lethal, Newcastle Disease (ND) in two broiler flocks that were intensively managed and vaccinated against Newcastle disease. The broiler flocks (325) were four weeks and (450) were six weeks old at the time of the outbreak. Clinical characteristics of the disease included a 100% morbidity, increasing high mortality i.e. 40 birds (day one), 70 birds (day two), 180 (day three) and the entire flocks consisting of 755 birds were lost by the fifth day. Clinical features observed included severe depression, gasping, anorexia, cyanosis and subcutaneous haemorrhages of the legs and shank. Gross lesions seen were severe congestion of skeletal muscles and visceral organs and severe haemorrhages and congestion of the proventriculus, cecal tonsils and trachea, air saculitis with severely congested and pneumonic lungs were observed as well. Ten cloacal swabs from dead and sick birds were tested using a Rapid Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza Antigen Detection Test Kits. This Chromatographic- immunoassay tested positive for ND and negative for AI confirming the presence of ND viral antigen. Four dead and live birds taken to National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) Vom, Nigeria for further confirmation were tested using rapid test kit, haemagglutination inhibition test and viral isolation. These tests were also negative for AI but positive for vvND. Clinical signs and gross lesions of ND and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) seem not to be distinguishable in the field. This is likely going to affect disease reporting and actions to be taken. Vaccination against ND should not be totally relied upon especially when birds are not seromonitored pre and post vaccination.
  O.N. Ameji , P.A. Abdu , L. Sa`idu , J. Kabir and A. Assam
  Kogi state did not report Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) during the 2006-2008 outbreaks in Nigeria despite the presence of favorable factors for the occurrence of the disease. A survey was conducted among stakeholders using structured questionnaires to determine the level of awareness, knowledge and readiness to report outbreak of HPAI and biosecurity practices in Kogi state, Nigeria. Awareness was 100% but knowledge of HPAI was low (9.1%). Readiness to report HPAI outbreak to relevant authorities was high (75.3%) but about 20% of respondents were not ready to report to any authority. Biosecurity practices evaluated by the presence of movement control was 38.8%; presence of footbath was rare (11.8%); handling of sick birds by isolation and treatment was 40%; improper disposal of dead birds in refuse dump was high (85.9%) and extensive management system was high (60.76%). The study revealed high level of awareness and readiness to report HPAI but poor knowledge and biosecurity practices towards it. The failures in biosecurity measures as seen in this study will greatly enhance introduction and spread of HPAI as well as other contagious poultry diseases in the state. Knowledge directly affects readiness to report hence efforts should be made to improve poultry stakeholders’ knowledge of HPAI and proper biosecurity practices.
  Y.D. Dashe , M.A. Raji , P.A. Abdu , B.S. Oladele and M.Y. Sugun
  Antibiotic resistance is often encountered despite multiple antibiotics being used for the treatment of fowl cholera in Jos. This study was conducted to determine the antibiotic resistant profile of Pasteurella multocida isolated from chickens in Jos. A total of 2000 samples consisting of bone marrow, heart, liver, lung and spleen (400 each) were collected from 400 clinically sick chickens between November, 2010 and October, 2011 for the isolation of P. multocida. Swab from each sample was cultured on 7% defibrinated sheep blood, MacConkey and casein sucrose yeast agar. Presumptive colonies of P. multocida were subjected to biochemical characterization. Isolates identified by biochemical tests were further subjected to Microbact GNB 24E test. Disk diffusion method was employed to test the sensitivity of all the twelve P. multocida isolates confirmed by biochemical and Microbact GNB 24E test. The twelve pure isolates of P. multocida were tested for their sensitivity against fifteen different antibiotics. Drug sensitivity test conducted on P. multocida isolates showed that some of the isolates were resistant to penicillin 11 (73%), microlides 9 (60%), sulfanomides 8 (53.3%), cephalosporins 3 (20%) and other new groups of antibiotics 4 (27%). High resistance of P. multocida was recorded for ampicillin (91.7%) followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (83.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (66.7%), erythromycin and anicillin (58.3%) each, while tylosin was (33.3%). This study revealed that there is an emergence of multidrug resistance in some P. multocida strains among chickens in Jos, Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that antibiotic sensitivity test should be incorporated on a routine bases as part of measure to control fowl cholera and minimize the emergence of P. multocida resistance.
  Y.G. Dashe , M.A. Raji , P.A. Abdu , B.S. Oladele and D. Olarinmoye
  Aeromonas species are increasingly incriminated in clinical cases in livestock and humans in Nigeria and the world at large. This investigative study was carried out between November, 2010 and October, 2011 in Jos, Nigeria to determine the isolation rate of Aeromonas species in clinically sick and apparently healthy commercial chickens. A total of 2000 postmortem samples consisting of bone marrow, heart, liver, lung and spleen (400 each) were aseptically collected from 400 clinically sick chickens suspected to be suffering from various clinical conditions and cultured for Aeromonas organisms. Four hundred oro-pharyngeal swabs were also collected from 400 apparently healthy chickens for bacteriological analysis. Swab from each sample was cultured on 7% defibrinated sheep blood and MacConkey. From the bacteriological cultures of the bone marrow, heart and liver of the sick chickens, a total 11 (0.5%) Aeromonas hydrophila isolates were identified by biochemical characterization and Macrobact™ test. Aeromonas organism was not isolated at all from the apparently healthy chickens. The co-occurrence of Aeromonas hydrophila with other pathogens in the sick chickens could have contributed to the observed exacerbation of clinical signs and mortalities in some of the investigated flocks during the study period.
  K.L. Adang , S.J. Oniye , A.U. Ezealor , P.A. Abdu and O.J. Ajanusi
  A total of 240 (127 males and 113 females) domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica Linnaeus) purchased from Samaru and Sabon-Gari markets in Zaria, were examined by plumage brushing for ectoparasites. One hundred and seventy-seven (73.8%) of the birds were infested by five species of ectoparasites. The ectoparasites comprised lice: 15 (6.3%) Menopon gallinae, 153 (63.8%) Columbicola columbae and 26 (10.8%) Goniodes sp.; flies: 89 (37.1) Pseudolynchia canariensis and 6 (2.5%) of mites (Dermanyssus gallinae). Seventy-four (30.8%) of the domestic birds had single infestation, 95 (39.6%) had double infestation and 7 (2.9%) had triple infestation. The difference between single and mixed infestation was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The females had a higher prevalence 84 (74.3%) than the males 93 (73.2%). There was however no significant difference (p>0.05) in the infestation rates between the sexes. Ectoparasites were removed from the birds through out the year with highest prevalence (95%) in August. Columbicola columbae and Pseudolynchia canariensis were collected through out the year.
  M.H. Sulaiman , L. Saidu and P.A. Abdu
  This study describe a rare case of congenital defects involving the atresia of the left oviduct with the accompanying abnormalities of ovaries and caecum observed in a 12 month old layer presented to the Avian Ambulatory Clinic of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. At post mortem, a thin wall oviduct measuring 18 cm long which opens into the cloaca was noticed while the left oviduct was completely absent. In addition the right hypolastic oviduct had a large cyst with a morphometric measurement of 18 cm by 14 cm by 7 cm and containing 1.25 L of clear non proteinous fluid, weighing 1.01 kg. When the cystic fluid was cultured in blood agar at 37°C for 72 h, no bacteria colony growth was observed. However, biochemical analysis revealed a composition of electrolytes. The bird also had undeveloped ovaries, malformed illeocaecal junction cranially measuring 6.5 cm.
  J.S. Rwuaan , P.I. Rekwot , P.A. Abdu , L.O. Eduvie , B.O. Omontese and J.A. Obidi
  Fifty 20 weeks old Shikabrown (SB) cocks consisting of 22 red and 28 white SB cocks were purchased from the National Animal Production Research Institute Shika. The cocks were fed on a diet of layers mash with 18% crude protein, 95.6% dry matter, 17.1% crude fibre and 3% nitrogen. About 25 cocks consisting of 8 red and 17 white SB cocks selected on the basis of body weight and antibody titres were infected with 0.2 mL of 106.0 EID50 of velogenic Kudu 113 strain of Newcastle disease virus intranasaly and orally. About 25 cocks consisting of 14 red and 11 white SB cocks served as control. Cloacal temperatures, body weights and semen samples of both control and infected cocks were taken weekly for 6 weeks. The semen was evaluated for volume, colour, motility, concentration, percentage live spermatozoa and percentage total spermatozoa abnormalities. Semen colour was graded as creamy (1 = very good); milky (2 = good) and watery (3 = poor). There was no significant difference in the cloacal temperatures and body weights of control and infected red and white SB cocks. The infected red and white cocks had slightly higher cloacal temperatures than the control. The semen volume of infected red cocks showed a general increase over that of the control red cocks. The semen volume of the control white SB cocks was significantly higher than that of the infected white cocks. The white SB cocks had higher semen volume than the red SB cocks. The red SB cocks had slightly better semen colour than the white SB cocks. The control white cocks had higher spermatozoa motility than the infected white cocks while the infected red cocks had higher spermatozoa motility than the control red cocks. The white SB cocks generally had better spermatozoa motility than the red cocks. The spermatozoa concentration of the control white cocks was consistently higher than that of the infected white SB cocks; the reverse was the case with the red cocks where the spermatozoa concentration of the infected red cocks was higher than that of the control red cocks. The white cocks had better spermatozoa concentration than the red cocks. The control white SB cocks had significantly (p<0.05) higher percent live spermatozoa than the infected white cocks. Similarly, the infected red SB cocks had lower percent live spermatozoa than the control red cocks. The control white SB cocks had significantly (p<0.05) higher percent live spermatozoa than the control red SB cocks. The infected red and white SB cocks had higher percentage total spermatozoa abnormalities than the contol red and white cocks. It can be concluded from this study that the white SB cocks had better semen quality than the red SB cocks; the non-infected SB cocks had better semen quality than the infected SB cocks. It is recommended that white SB cocks be used for breeding purposes and that breeder cocks should be routinely vaccinated against Newcastle disease to ensure that the level of antibodies is high enough to prevent adverse effect on semen quality.
  J.S. Ruwaan , P.I. Rekwot , P.A. Abdu , B.O. Omontese , J.A. Obidi and N.P. Chiezey
  About fifty 20 weeks old Shika Brown (SB) cocks were used in this study. Five cocks consisting of three Red Shika-Brown (RSB) and two White Shika-Brown (WSB) were bled for serum samples for testosterone assay at weeks 1, 3 and 6 pre and post-infection with a Velogenic Newcastle disease virus. Blood samples were collected at 30 min interval for 3 h from each cock on the days of sampling. The blood samples were centrifuged in a Hermle Z364 centrifuge at 251.6x g for 15 min with the sera obtained stored in serum vials and kept in a deep freezer at -20°C until analysis using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. At the end of the study, twenty control (n = 20) and twenty infected (n = 20) cocks were slaughtered. Their testicles were removed, measured, minced and ground for the determination of gonadal sperm reserves. The mean testosterone concentration of both the control SB cocks and the pre-infected SB cocks had no particular pattern. The mean testosterone concentration post infection showed a decrease from week 1-6. The mean testosterone concentration peak for the control red SB cocks was 1, 2 and 2.5 nmols mL-1 at weeks 1, 3 and 6, respectively while the white SB cocks had 12.5, 5.5, 3 nmols mL-1 at weeks 1, 3 and 6, respectively. The infected red SB cocks had mean testosterone concentration peaks of 9.7, 6.3 and 2.7 nmols mL-1 at weeks 1, 3 and 6 post-infection, respectively while the white SB cocks had a mean testosterone concentration peak of 6.5, 14.5 and 6.5 nmols mL-1 at weeks 1, 3 and 6 post-infection, respectively. The gonadal sperm reserves of the control red and white SB cocks were not significantly different but the gonadal sperm reserves of the control white SB cocks was significantly (p>0.05) higher than the gonadal sperm reserves of the infected red and white SB cocks. The total gonadal sperm reserve of the control white cocks was significantly (p>0.05) higher than the total gonadal sperm reserves of the infected red and white SB cocks.
  U. Musa , P.A. Abdu , J.O. Salami-Shinaba , N.M. Sati , P.R. Kumbish , P.E. Emennaa , M.O. Odugbo , U.M. Mera and P.D. Karsin
  A 10 years, 2001 to 2012, study in a multispecies farm was undertaken to investigate the cause of mortality in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) reared on deep litter in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. Clinical signs and gross lesions were also recorded. One viral, four bacterial, two protozoan and three miscellaneous conditions were the cause of mortality. Infectious diseases included Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis and pasteurellosis. The diseases caused 1,411,079 deaths in chicks, growers and adult quails. Smothering was the major (303,600; 21.52%) cause of mortality in chicks followed by salmonellosis (285,360; 20.22%) and Newcastle disease (237,600; 16.84%) in adults. Coccidiosis and histomoniasis caused mortality of 0.60% (8,400) and 0.94% (13,200) in growers and adults, respectively. The signs and gross lesions caused by the diseases encountered in the quails were similar to those reported previously in chickens. It was concluded that Japanese quails are susceptible to diseases affecting chicken and they exhibit similar signs and develop similar gross lesions. As the infectious diseases diagnosed in the quails were also encountered in chickens concurrently reared on the same farm the quails could have been the source of the pathogens for the chickens. Adequate biosecurity and control measures currently practiced in chickens would prevent mortality and spread of disease in quails.
 
 
 
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