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Articles by P.A. Akah
Total Records ( 3 ) for P.A. Akah
  C.S. Nworu , P.A. Akah , C.O. Okoli , C.O. Esimone and F.B.C. Okoye
  The modulatory activity of methanolic seed extracts of Garcinia kola (ME) on Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response, primary and secondary humoral responses and on in vivo leucocytes mobilisation were evaluated. Acute toxicity test of the extract was also carried out. The ME at 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight produced significant (p<0.05) inhibition of DTH response in mice by 67.40 and 53.29%, respectively. Primary and secondary sheep red blood cells-specific antibody titres were significantly elevated when compared to the control group. Agar-induced in vivo leucocytes mobilisation into the mice peritoneal fluid was significantly (p<0.05) increased by ME at 250 and 500 mg kg-1. The total leucocytes counts were higher in the extract-treated groups when compared to the control group. The mobilised white blood cells were predominantly polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). The ME administered (orally) at 5000 mg kg-1 did not caused lethality and signs of acute intoxication after 48 h observation period. The results of this study have established cellular and humoral immunomodulatory activities of G. kola extract and justify further investigations into the effects of specific constituents of the plant on immune system components.
  P.A. Akah , Lucy John-Africa and C.S. Nworu
  Methanol leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) was investigated for gastroprotective properties. The anti-ulcer effect was evaluated in three experimental ulcer models induced by ethanol, indomethacin and hypothermic-restraint stress in rats. Anti-ulcer related properties of the extract such as gastrointestinal transit and the activity on isolated gut tissue preparations of guinea pig and rabbit were also determined. The extract (ME) administered orally at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg kg-1 significantly (p<0.05) reduced the ulcer indices in a dose-related manner. The extract showed higher gastroprotection against indomethacin and ethanol-induced ulcers than the stress-induced ulcer. Gastrointestinal motility was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by the extract in mice. On the rabbit jejunum, ME produced a concentration-dependent relaxation and inhibited ACh contractile responses. The extract, ME had no effect on guinea-pig ileum but inhibited the contractions produced by histamine. At doses above 3 g kg-1 (p.o.), ME caused no signs of acute toxicity or deaths in mice. Flavonoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrate, steroids, alkaloids, terpenes and volatile oils were found present in the methanol extract of O. gratissimum leaf. The results show that the methanol leaf extract of O. gratissimum offers protection against ulcers induced by different ulcerogens and could justify the folk use of the plant in peptic ulcer diseases. Cyto-protection and antispasmodic activities may be the likely mechanisms for the anti-ulcer property of this plant.
  C.S. Nworu , P.A. Akah , O.O. Ndu , A.C. Ezike and N.I. Onyekwelu
  This study was conducted to determine the effects of concomitant administration of oral co-trimoxazole (120 mg kg 1) and zidovudine (30 mg kg 1) on their respective pharmacokinetics profiles in adult rabbits. The study was conducted in three phases, each separated from the other by a 2-week drug wash-out period. In the first phase, the animals received zidovudine (30 mg kg 1, p.o.) alone; in the second phase, they received co-trimoxazole (120 mg kg 1, p.o.) alone and in the third phase, both Zidovudine (30 mg kg 1, p.o.) and co-trimoxazole (120 mg kg 1, p.o.) were given concomitantly. Blood samples were withdrawn at intervals for 24 h and analysed for drug content. The concomitant administration of AZT and co-trimoxazole resulted in a non-significant (p>0.05) increase in peak plasma concentration, Area under Curve (AUC) and half-life (t1/2) of AZT and a decrease in the elimination rate constant, absorption rate constant, clearance and apparent volume of distribution of AZT. The peak plasma concentrations of zidovudine (876.9232.29 g mL 1), sulphamethoxazole (0.3490.007 g mL 1) and trimethoprim (0.6440.015 g mL 1) attained were increased non-significantly by 2.3, 9.17 and 5.59%, respectively. The apparent increase in serum concentration of co-trimoxazole, though not significant, resulted in a remarkable increase in the Reciprocal of Serum Inhibitory Titres (RSIT) against B. subtilis of up to 83.47% at the 2 h interval.The result of this study, suggests that co-trimoxazole does not cause major alterations in AZT pharmacokinetics in rabbits. In clinical practice, we could therefore infer that routine dosage adjustment may not be necessary when these 2 drugs are used concomitantly except in patients with co-existing hepatic or renal impairment where the risk of neutropaenia could be a major concern.
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