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Articles by P. Soundarapandian
Total Records ( 24 ) for P. Soundarapandian
  P. Soundarapandian , G. Dinakaran and N. John Samuel
  In order to increase the population of green frog (Rana hexadactyla) two types of experiment was conducted. The first experiment was designed to expose the frogs in artificial raining system. In the second experiment was conducted to induce the breeding activity by means of pituitary extract. The animals kept in artificial raining system took 26 h for egg deposition. Where as the animals injected with pituitary extract shows only 6.66 h. Fecundity was less (6,600) in animals kept in artificial raining system and it was comparatively high (7,500) in pituitary extract injected animals. Hatching rate, tadpole and frog let survival was much higher in animals exposed to artificial raining system. These were less in the animals injected with pituitary extract. Total rearing periods (6.4 weeks) were less in the animals injected with pituitary extract and it is higher (7.3 weeks) in the animals exposed to artificial raining system. Though the artificial raining system is ideal system for seed production the technology need to be standardized. Once it is standardized it can be very well utilized for the production of seeds in controlled conditions.
  P. Soundarapandian and B. Gunalan
  In the present study, an attempt has been made to culture the giant tiger shrimp, P. monodon in six ponds each with 0.8 ha near Alagankulam village of Ramanathapuram district, Tamil Nadu. The salinity of the six ponds was ranging between 16-30 ppt and pH was 7.6 to 8.0. Minimum 3.9 ppm dissolved oxygen and maximum 4.2 ppm was recorded during the culture period. The temperature was ranging between 27 to 30°C and the transparency was 35 to 50 cm. Harvesting was carried out in ponds 1, 2 at DOC 142 and 3, 4 at DOC 143 and 5,6 at DOC 149. Average body weights of the ponds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are 38.46, 40.00, 40.00, 37.00, 38.46 and 37.00, respectively. Highest survival 76% was recorded in pond 4 and the lowest survival 68% recorded in pond 1. The average survival for all six ponds was calculated as 72%. Maximum production was reported in pond 2 (2,154 kg) and minimum was in the pond 1 (1,874 kg). The total production in all ponds was 11,998 tons. The average body weight and average daily growth was calculated as 38.49 and 0.26 g, respectively in all ponds. The maximum amount of feed was consumed by the shrimps in pond 2 (2,940) and minimum was in pond 1 (2,550). The FCR for all ponds were 1.36. Maximum net profit was obtained from pond 2 (Rs. 3,91,940) and minimum was in the pond 1 (Rs. 2, 69,492). So it is confirmed that 12 m-2 is an ideal stocking density for the culture of P. monodon as evidenced from the net profit Rs. 19,18,710. To get this profit, proper water quality management and feed management is essential.
  P. Soundarapandian and S. Sankar
  In recent years the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture has tremendous scope and the study of the application of probiotics in aquaculture has a glorious future. In the present study the probiotics, Silver-Ps was applied in culture ponds of Penaus monodon and was compared with control ponds (without probiotics). The salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature did not show significant difference between control and probiotics treated ponds. Average body weight, total production and survival rate of the ponds applied with probiotics were higher than that of control ponds. However feed conversion ratio was lower for the probiotics treated ponds than the control ponds. The shrimps in control ponds were seriously affected by bacterial infection; gill soaking and tail rot diseases. However, those problems are not encountered in probiotics applied ponds. The general conclusion obtained from the present study is that the probiotics plays a vital role in growth, survival and production of the shrimps by maintaining good water quality parameters through out the culture period.
  P. Soundarapandian , K. Balamurugan and N. John Samuel
  The freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is more consumer preference because of its delicious nature and export potential. Monoculture and ployculture trials of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were attempted. Production under monoculture was 561 kg ha-1 and in polyculture it ranged from 361 to 381 kg ha-1. The present study inferred that low stocking density; proper feed management and use of aerators are essential for better survival and production.
  P. Soundarapandian and Rajnish Kumar Singh
  In the present investigation an attempt has been made to know the biochemical composition of matured eggs of P. pelagicus. The protein content was found to be 57.00% followed by lipid (14%) and carbohydrate (6.40%). The total values of saturated fatty acids in crab eggs were calculated as 12.78%. Among various saturated fatty acids recorded, the amount of myristic acid (06.36%) was predominant and minimum was capric acid (00.14%). The total amount of monounsaturated fatty acids in the present study was found to be 02.97%. Higher amount of monounsaturated fatty acid was nervonic acid (02.44%) and less amount of fatty acid was palmitoleic acid (00.10%). The total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the present observation was calculated as 12.66%. Maximum amount of fatty acid was reported to be arachidonic acid (07.77%) followed by linoleum acid (01.83%) and minimum was linlelaidic acid (00.02%). From the present study, it is confirmed that the percentage of protein is highest among the biochemical constituents. The percentages of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids are high when compared to monounsaturated fatty acids studied in the matured eggs of P. pelagicus. Further study is needed to know which biochemical constituents and fatty acids are fairly utilized during embryogenesis and larval development. For this investigation one should study the biochemical changes of different stages of embryogenesis and larval development.
  P. Soundarapandian
  The second largest palaemonid prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii has great potential for aquaculture. In the present study the breeding behavior and hatching mechanism was studied. The berried females were kept in different salinities until the larvae hatched out. The developed eggs were kept in bowls containing respective salinity. The incubation period was 14 days in freshwater but it decreased to 11 days with the addition of brakishwater of 7 ppt salinity. Hatching percentage increases when the berried females were reared in 7 ppt salinity than freshwater. The eggs of M. malcolmsonii hatched in tap water, pond water and distilled water (control) but not in the different concentrations of sucrose solutions (0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.1 M).
  P. Soundarapandian and B. Vasanthi
  The micro alga, Spirulina is a rich source of protein, which is used as a protein supplement for humans, chicks and also in aquaculture. Among the cultures, CS-1 registered maximum biomass production and S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. Optimum temperature of 35°C was the best for maximum biomass production of S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures CS-1 culture, put forth maximum biomass production at 35°C. The biomass production of all S. platensis cultures was maximum at pH 10.0. Among the cultures, CS-1 recorded maximum biomass at pH 10.0. S. platensis culture S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. S. platensis cultures were grown under different light wave lengths ranging from 340-700 nm and observed that it grows best in red light but later on there was no significant difference between the biomass produced under red and normal white lights. S. platensis culture CS-1 has shown the highest chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycocyanin and protein contents. When the extracted protein was resolved on a 15% SDS-PAGE gel, the cultures have polypeptide subunits ranging from the molecular weights 20 to 95 kDa. The liquid nitrogen method was found to be the best by extraction higher quantity of phycocyanin from all S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures, S. platensis culture CS-1 recorded the highest phycocyanin content and among the local isolates SM-2 showed the highest pigment content. SDS-PAGE analysis of phycocyanin pigment revealed two characteristic bands with a molecular weights of 14.3 and 20.1 kDa approximately for α and β subunits.
  P. Soundarapandian , N. John Samuel , S. Ravichandran and T. Kannupandi
  In this study, the distribution of crabs in Pichavaram was recorded from December 2001 to November 2002 at monthly intervals. The species present on the substratum and on the vegetation area were recorded in quadrant each measuring 1 m2. There are about 36 crabs species are distributed in Pichavaram mangrove environment. Crabs belonging to the family Grapsidae and Ocypodidae are most dominant forms. Substrate suitability; effects of tidal inundation and distribution of mangrove plants were the possible factors that could influence zonation and abundance of the crabs in the Pichavaram mangroves. The reason for depletion of crabs and their conservation measures are also discussed.
  P. Soundarapandian , K. Balamurugan and N. John Samuel
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  P. Soundarapandian and B. Vasanthi
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  P. Soundarapandian and B. Gunalan
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  P. Soundarapandian and S. Sankar
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  P. Soundarapandian and Rajnish Kumar Singh
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  P. Soundarapandian
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  P. Soundarapandian , E. Thamizhazhagan and N. John Samuel
  To establish a commercial hatchery in crabs a mass seed production experiment was conduced in the blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus. It undergone 5 zoeal and I megalopa stage. The larvae took 24.3 days to complete their cycle. The rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia nauplii were provided as feed for the larval forms. The survival rate decreases with increasing larval stages. While, larval duration increases with increasing larval stages. Maximum survival (71.6%) was reported in I zoea and minimum (4.3%) was in Megalopa when metamorphosed into Ist crab instar. Initially the larvae took 3 days to reach the next stage (I-IV stage). It was 4-5 days for the later stages (IV-Ist crab instar). Mortality and cannibalism is a common problem encountered during the study period. The reason for the mortality and cannibalism is discussed in detail.
  P. Soundarapandian , P. Sivanadavel and T. Kannupandi
  The present study was designed to find out the suitability of white shrimp, Penaeus monodon in the cages of Vellar estuary. In the previous experiments, the autoentrants and fouling were found to be disturbing the production and hence the present study deals with the controlling of this problem by changing the cages with fresh cages at regular intervals except control. Among the four uniform size rectangular cages (10X5X1.5 m) used, the first cage was treated as control, the second cage was changed at 15 days interval, the third cage was changed at 30 days interval and the fourth cage was changed at 60 days intervals. The culture was carried out for 120 days and the juveniles of size ranging from 3.3 to 4.0 g were stocked uniformly at the rate of 20 m-2 for all the cages. In the cage changed at 15 days interval, the autoentrants and fouling species were found to be less. The maximum growth of 25.5 g, survival rate of 96% and production rate of 491.52 g m-2 were recorded in the cage changed at the interval of 30 days. From the findings of the present study, it is suggested that the cage changed every 30 days regular interval is ideal for the higher production of P. indicus.
  P. Soundarapandian
  Effect of unilateral eyestalk ablation and diets on the growth of the juveniles of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii was studied. Weight gain of the eyestalk ablated juveniles fed with live foods, adult Artemia (8.41 g), earthworm (6.90 g) and oyster (6.54 g) was better than those fed with artificial feed I (5.18 g). Both in eyestalk ablated and intact control animals, adult Artemia induced higher weight gain; whereas the animals fed with artificial feed I showed the lowest weight gain. Feed consumption was higher when eyestalk ablated animals were fed with earthworm (13.92 g) and artificial feed II (13.73 g) than those feed with artificial feed I (11.63 g) and adult Artemia (12.12 g). However, feed consumption did not showed significant difference when eyestalk ablated animal fed with earthworm, feed II and oyster. The intact control animals consumed more earthworm (11.68 g) than oyster (10.51 g), adult Artemia (10.32 g) and artificial feed I (9.28 g). The eyestalk ablated prawns which were fed with adult Artemia showed the best FCR value (1.48) followed by oyster (2.02), earthworm (2.05) and artificial feeds I (2.38) and II (2.42). Similar pattern was evident in intact control prawns. The eyestalk-ablated animals fed with adult Artemia showed higher survival (75.6%) than those fed with earthworm (73.6%), oyster (72.8%), artificial feeds II (69.6%) and I (68.6%). Similar pattern was also observed in intact control juveniles. The present study clearly indicates that unilateral eyestalk ablation can be adapted in aquaculture practices of M. malcolmsonii juveniles as it yields high weight gain within a short period when compared to intact controls.
  P. Soundarapandian and S. Dominic Arul Raja
  In the present study, two types of experiments were conducted. First experiment was designed to know the optimum salinity and second experiment was to know the suitable live feeds for fattening. They were kept in different salinities (20, 25, 30 ppt). Weight gain of the crab=s cultured in 30 ppt (58.3 g) was significantly higher than 20 (49.6 g) and 25 ppt (52.3 g) and also the shell hardens in shorter duration (11.6 days). Hence 30 ppt salinity was selected as optimum salinity for further experiment. After knowing the salinity 3 different live feeds viz., oyster, clam, trash fish were offered individually. Fourth feed was offered in combined manner. Proximate analysis was also performed for feeds used in the present study. Weight gain was higher when the water crabs were fed with mixed feed (59.00 g). The shell hardening duration (11.6 days) also shorter when compared to other feeds. From the present study 30 ppt salinity was optimum and mixed feed is suitable feed for fattening of P. pelagicus as evidenced by shorter duration and higher weight gain.
  P. Soundarapandian and A. Kannan
  In the present study, the nursery culture was practiced in 4 different farms (A, B, C and D). The salinity was ranging between 0-4 ppt and alkaline pH (7.0-8.3) was maintained by adding lime in all 4 ponds. The temperature fluctuations were not beyond the optimum (26-32°C) and the dissolved oxygen level was ranging between 3.5 to 6.5 ppm throughout the culture period in all four farms. Optimum transparency (31-42 cm) was maintained throughout study period. The food conversion ratio of the present study ranges from 1:1.23 to 1:1.47. The survival rates of farms A, B, C and D were 78, 83, 80.32 and 81%, respectively. The maximum average body weight of 22.0 g in male population and 19.70 g in female population was reported in farm A, where the crop pattern is 5 seeds/m2/110 days. Whereas in farms B, C and D the crop pattern was 11 seeds/m2/70 days, 15 seeds/m2/70 days and 20 seeds/m2/70 days, respectively. The average body weight of females in the farms B, C and D are 4.16, 5.30 and 3.75, respectively. In farm A, all the female’s population with the average body weight of 19.70 g was sold out in good price. The total (482 kg) production also high in farm A where as B, C and D farms it was 85, 277.38 and 280.62 kg, respectively. Extension of nursery culture up to 110 days, proper water quality and feeding management in nurseries and low stocking density are reported to get the maximum growth and total production in farm A. This is highly profitable business those who are maintaining their own ponds. The nursery culture period in farms B, C and D was 70 days. The male production in farms B, C and D were 7,400, 20,060 and 24,652 numbers, respectively. So, the culture period of 70 days and semi-intensive type of culture is found more profitable for male scampi seed selling farmers.
  G. Ananthan , P. Sampathkumar , P. Soundarapandian and L. Kannan
  Totally 156 species of marine phytoplankton were identified of which Diatoms formed the dominant group followed by Dinoflagellates, Blue Green and Greens. Phytoplankton population density and species diversity were high during the summer season and were invariably sparse during the monsoon season at both the stations. Species richness and evenness of phytoplankton showed an inverse relationship with the dominance index. Distribution of chlorophyll a concentration closely followed the phytoplankton population density and gross primary productivity. Species composition, population density, primary productivity and chlorophyll a concentration was more in the coast due to higher number of autochthonous coastal marine species in addition to allochthonous species from the estuary.
  R. Murugesan , P. Soundarapandian and K. Manivannan
  In the present study was aimed to know the effect of eyestalk ablation on the biochemical composition of the crab, Charybdis lucifera. After 3 days of experimental period, proximate composition was estimated both control and eyestalk ablated crabs. The protein content of unilaterally eyestalk ablated (68.97%) crabs was higher than that of control crabs (41.64%). Carbohydrate content of eyestalk-ablated crabs (1.45%) was relatively higher when compared to intact control crabs (1.42%). The lipid content of the present study was also higher in eyestalk-ablated crabs (1.85%) rather than intact control crabs (1.65%). In the present study the values of saturated fatty acids for eyestalk ablated and intact control crabs were 26.32 and 25.89%, respectively. The mono saturated fatty acids in eyestalk-ablated crabs were 0.76% and control crabs were 0.48%. However, the polyunsaturated fatty acids were 11.63% in eyestalk ablated and 5.8% in intact control crabs. From the present study, it could be confirmed that eyestalk ablation influenced protein, carbohydrate and lipid content of the crab, C. lucifera. It also effectively influenced saturated and unsaturated fatty acids as evidenced by higher values in eyestalk ablated crabs rather than control crabs.
  P. Sivanandavel , P. Soundarapandian and T. Kannupandi
  To assess the effect of various feed ingredients on growth, survival, production and feed conversion ratio of Penaeus indicus. Four uniform size rectangular cages (10x5x1.5 m) were erected on the bottom soil substrate. All these cages were uniformly stocked at the rate of 50 m-2 with juveniles of size ranging from 3.3 to 4.1 g. The shrimps of the first cages were fed with fish meal based diet, the second with clam meal based diet, the third with soyaben based diet and fourth with mixed diet of fish meal, clam meal and soyabean. As the culture was carried out for 100 days, all the cages were changed at regular interval of 34 days. The higher growth 22.9 g, survival rate 97%, production rate 1110.65 g m-2 and better feed conversion ratio 1:1:8 were observed for the shrimps fed with the mixed diet.
  P. Soundarapandian and R. Chandra
  In the present study, mass production of Metarhizium anisopliae was carried out in the laboratory by using liquid and solid media. The spore count, radial growth, sporulation and biomass were maximum when M. anisopliae were cultured both czapeck dox agar and potato dextrose agar media. Hence, these two media can be used for successful mass production of fungus, M. anisopliae. Four types of solid media such as rice, maize, wheat and kodomillet were used for the mass production of M. anisopliae and highest sporulation was observed in M. anisopliae cultured in wheat (8,300x104). Hence, wheat is recommended as best solid media for the mass production of M. anisopliae. The optimum temperature and ideal pH for the mass production of M. anisopliae was found to be 25-30°C and 7.0, respectively. Various culture containers such as Erlinmayer’s flasks, petriplates and plastic bags were also used for the mass production of M. anisopliae. But very good result was obtained in High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) bags. So this high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bags are ideal and also cost effective for the mass production of M. anisopliae.
  R. Lakshmanan and P. Soundarapandian
  The survival rate and growth of both the ponds (High and low dosages of probiotics), which was applied with probiotics, was higher than that of control ponds. Concentrations of nitrite, nitrate and phosphate were higher in control ponds than the probiotics treated ponds. Chlorophyll a was observed maximum in probiotics treated ponds rather than control ponds. The bacterial population decreased at the end of culture in both treated and control ponds but the load of vibrio sp. when compared with THB in the control pond was not showing a significant decrease. Black gill, white gut and fungal diseases were predominant in control ponds. But these diseases were meager in probiotics treated ponds. The general conclusion obtained from the present study is that the probiotics plays a vital role in growth, survival and disease resistance of the animal by maintaining good water quality parameters through out the culture period. It is clear from the microbial load data that vibrio sp. is dominant only in the control ponds.
 
 
 
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