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Articles by P. Singh
Total Records ( 7 ) for P. Singh
  P. Singh and G.K. Goyal
  This study evaluated the combined effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and refrigeration (7±1°C) on shelf-life extension of ready-to-serve pizza. Quality assessment was based on sensory and biochemical indices determination. The gaseous atmospheres used were: atm1: air (control); atm2: 100% CO2, atm3: 100% N2 and atm4: 50% CO2/50% N2. Moisture content, water activity, pH, titratable acidity, free fatty acids, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid, tyrosine content, lycopene content, color profile (L*= lightness of the product; a*= redness of the product; b*= yellowness of the product; total color difference; relative yellowness) were monitored. Sampling was carried out at predetermined time intervals namely 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. The results indicated that MAP with 100% CO2 more significantly inhibited the lipolytic oxidation, reduced proteolysis, effectively prevented total acidity (less decrease in pH) and have preservative effect on color indices and hence extended shelf life than did other treatments. Results of the present study show that the limit of sensory acceptability was only reached for the aerobically stored samples somewhat before days 15 of storage. The shelf life of baked pizza samples in conventional air packages was 15 days. However, a significant shelf life increase of 45 days (300% increase) was achieved under modified atmospheres for baked pizza samples.
  T.R. Arun , R. Rana , P. Singh , P. Choudhuri , V.P. Singh , P. Thomas , V. Rekha , K. Nehra , J. Usharani and K. Dhama
  A gold nanoparticle based lateral flow assay was developed for rapid serodiagnosis of contagious agalactia, an economically important mycoplasmal disease of small ruminants. Sonicated antigen of Mycoplasma agalactiae was used as the test reagent that was immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane along with the control line of goat IgG. The detection reagent, gold nanoparticle conjugated with anti-goat antibody was dried on the conjugate pad. During the assay, specific antibodies against M. agalactiae in the test serum that combined with the detection reagent were captured in the test line and detected visually by the development of a red line on nitrocellulose membrane. The gold conjugate captured in control line produced a red line regardless of the presence of specific antibodies that served as a procedural control. Serum samples collected from an experimentally infected goat were tested with the lateral flow assay and antibodies were detected from 9th day of infection and the assay was also evaluated using 100 goat sera samples. This is the first report regarding development of a gold nanoparticle based lateral flow assay for rapid diagnosis of contagious agalactia in goats. This study suggests that current lateral flow assay can be used as a user friendly diagnostic in laboratories lacking specialized equipments as well as for point of care diagnosis of contagious agalactia.
  Vikas K. Saket, , R. Kachhi and P. Singh
  Tuberculosis caused by different species of genus Mycobacterium or different serotypes of various species are the leading cause of mortality among livestock, domesticated animals and humans alike. This leads to huge economic loss in terms of animal and human capital. Currently one third of global population is infected with tuberculosis (TB). There might be innumerable reasons for it being pandemic but proper diagnosis or lack of it is one of the major contributing factors for its global spread. In developing countries precise and reliable diagnosis has emerged out to be the major cause translating into high burden. The TB diagnosis has evolved over the time with changing needs from classical microscopic sputum smear analysis to rapid PCR based molecular diagnostics. Molecular techniques are becoming confirmatory diagnostic tools and advanced procedure for TB detection. Current review lays emphasis on the tuberculosis from lower animals to higher animals including human with respect to diagnostics, therapy and its improvisation over a decade.
  R Singh , N Kumar and P. Singh

Various additives have been used to increase the duration of analgesia provided by bupivacaine administered by single-shot caudal injection in children.


A prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study in 50 ASA I–II children (34 boys and 16 girls) aged 1–6 yr undergoing upper abdominal surgery was conducted. Patients were divided into two groups to receive either morphine 30 µg kg–1 (MB) or clonidine 2 µg kg–1 (CB) in bupivacaine 0.2% (1.25 ml kg–1) for caudal analgesia. The duration of analgesia (FLACC scale) and sedation and side-effects such as vomiting, itching, respiratory depression, hypotension, and bradycardia were observed.


The mean duration of analgesia was 16.5 (3.6) h in the CB group compared with 10.2 (2.3) h (P<0.01) in the MB group. Subjects who received clonidine (CB) were sedated for longer [7.1 (0.8) h] compared with the MB group [3.8 (0.7) h; P<0.01]. Vomiting was observed in 4% and 12% of subjects in the CB and MB groups, respectively. Sixteen per cent of subjects reported itching in the MB group (P=0.03), and none in the CB group. No hypotension, bradycardia, or respiratory depression was observed in any subjects.


Caudal clonidine 2 µg kg–1 in bupivacaine 0.2% provides a longer duration of analgesia and sedation compared with caudal morphine 30 µg kg–1 in bupivacaine 0.2% without significant side-effects in children undergoing upper abdominal surgery.

  M Singh and P. Singh

Genomic consequences of factor VIII gene haplotypes for the indirect genetic analysis of haemophilia A has not been done in India hitherto. Consequently, BclI/intron18, HindIII/intron 19, and XbaI/intron 22 restriction sites were investigated in 159 individuals from 42 families with hemophilia A. The frequencies of haplotype II, IV, VI, that is, BclI (+)-HindIII (–)- XbaI (+), BclI (+)HindIII (+)-XbaI (–), and BclI (–)-HindIII (–)-XbaI (+) were 0.312, 0.198, and 0.164 respectively. The high heterogeneity of haplotype II highlighted its potential for indirect genetic diagnosis of factor VIII. Analysis revealed strong but incomplete linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.76, 0.68, and 0.51) between BclI/HindIII, HindIII/XbaI, and BclI/XbaI, respectively. The overall cumulative polymorphism information content (PIC) of these three markers increased from 0.36 to 0.80. Escalation of PIC up to 80% in the present study suggests that haplotyping of factor VIII gene determines better prognosis in the direction of indirect genetic analysis of hemophilia A.

  Dinesh Kumar , Z.A. Bhat , P. Singh , M.Y. Shah and S.S. Bhujbal
  Over the past decade, herbal and ayurvedic drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of herbal health claims. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. is a tree belonging to family Simaroubaceae, indigenous to Central and Southern India. Commonly it is known as a plant of Heaven. The traditional claims, phytochemical investigations and pharmacological evaluation and some ayurvedic formulations provide the backbone to make this tree as a plant of Heaven. This is not wrong to say that it is largactil because it has number of activities. This review article explores the traditional knowledge or claims along with pharmacognostical, phytochemical, pharmacological and future aspects of this plant. Over many centuries humans have been mining the bounties of nature for discovering new phytoconstituent that have been used for the treatment of number of diseases; many such treatments are useful even today as modern day medicine. Emerging evidence also suggests that search is still continuing for harnessing active compounds from nature in combating human illnesses and it also leads the path to search out new active natural and novel semisynthetic or synthetic compounds.
  D.S. Kushwah , M.T. Salman , P. Singh , V.K. Verma and A. Ahmad
  Paracetamol overdose causes serious liver necrosis. Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa in Paracetamol induced acute hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Fasted male Wistar rats were orally treated with Nigella sativa extract in graded doses for 5 days followed by Nigella sativa extract and paracetamol 3 g kg-1 on 6 and 7th day. Circulatory liver markers and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated and histopathological study of liver performed. Paracetamol caused a significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and total Bilirubin and a significant decrease in GSH compared to control. Nigella sativa pretreatment significantly prevented the increase in liver enzymes and total bilirubin and decrease in GSH level as compared to paracetamol group. Liver histopathology showed marked reduction in sinusoidal dilatation, midzonal necrosis, portal triaditis and occasional apoptosis in Nigella sativa extract treated groups as compared to group receiving only paracetamol. Nigella sativa extract possesses hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced acute hepatoxicity. Further research is needed to advocate its prophylactic use for drug induced hepatotoxicity.
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