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Articles by P. Sacakli
Total Records ( 5 ) for P. Sacakli
  Cesar Coto , F. Yan , S. Cerrate , Z. Wang , P. Sacakli , P.W. Waldroup , J. T. Halley , C.J. Wiernusz and A. Martinez
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary levels of calcium, nonphytate P (NPP), phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH) on live performance and bone development in male chicks fed a wheat-based diet. Dietary treatments consisted of a 2 x 2 x 4 x 4 factorial arrangements with two levels of supplemental phytase (0 or 1200 FTU/kg), two levels of 25-OH (0 or 69 µg/kg), four levels of calcium (0.20% less than a 2:1 ratio of Ca to NPP; 2:1 ratio of Ca to NPP; 0.20% Ca greater than a 2:1 ratio of Ca to NPP; 0.40% Ca greater than a 2:1 ratio of Ca to NPP) and four levels of NPP (0.35, 0.40, 0.45 and 0.50%) for a total of 64 treatments. The primary basal diet used to mix all experimental diets was supplemented with a complete vitamin mix containing 5500 IU of cholecalciferol. Each diet was fed to two pens of six male chicks of a commercial broiler strain in electrically heated battery brooders for three consecutive trials using the same diet mix for a total of six replicates per treatment. At 18 d birds were weighed, feed consumption determined and all birds killed for bone measurements. Toes from all birds within a pen were removed and ashed. Tibiae from both legs were removed and scored for incidence and severity of tibial dyschondroplasia and for incidence of calcium or phosphorus rickets. Ca: NPP ratios and calcium levels similar or higher than NRC (1994) recommendations appear necessary for adequate bird performance. Phytase supplementation improved performance parameters such as FCR and body weight, whereas the addition of 25-OH to diets already containing 5500 IU/kg of cholecalciferol had a negative effect on FCR due to a possible hypercalcemia condition. Bone development was improved by increasing phosphorus and calcium levels. Moreover, supplementation with 25-OH and its combination with phytase were effective in enhancing bone development. Increasing Ca levels consistently reduced leg abnormalities. Addition of 25-OH helped to relieve leg problems when suboptimal calcium levels were supplied while phytase supplementation was effective for this purpose when high Ca levels were given. The addition of these additives could be seen as an strategy to alleviate problems with suboptimal Ca: NPP ratios.
  Z. Wang , S. Cerrate , F. Yan , P. Sacakli and P.W. Waldroup
  Two consecutive experiments compared different concentrations of inorganic trace minerals in broiler production under different ambient temperature. Both experiments had six treatments, consisting of 100, 80, 60, 40, 20 and 0% of normal trace mineral premix (TMP) inclusion rate with eight and four replicates of sixty male broilers in the first and second experiments, respectively. Experiment 1 began on January 9th and finished on February 20th while Experiment 2 began on July 19th and finished on August 29th. Body weight and feed consumption were determined at 14, 35 and 42 days. At 42nd day two birds per pen were killed and the tibia removed for bone ash determination. In Experiment 2, cohort birds were fed in battery pens from 35 to 37 days. with excreta samples collected for trace mineral analysis. In Experiment 1, birds with no TMP had significantly decreased body weight over all growth periods. Birds fed diets with 20% of normal TMP did not differ in performance from those fed higher levels up to 100% of normal addition rates. There was no difference in any growth variables in Experiment 2 when higher environmental temperatures were in effect. Reduction of TMP in broiler diets could reduce mineral excretion to environment. Levels of Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in broiler excreta decreased when mineral premix levels were reduced.
  Cesar Coto , F. Yan , S. Cerrate , Z. Wang , P. Sacakli , J.T. Halley , C.J. Wiernusz , A. Martinez and P.W. Waldroup
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary levels of calcium (Ca), nonphytate P (NPP), phytase (Phy) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH) on live performance and bone development in male chicks fed a corn-based diet. Dietary treatments consisted of a 2×2×4×4 factorial arrangements with two levels of supplemental phytase (0 or 1200 FTU kg-1), two levels of 25-OH (0 or 69 µg kg-1), four levels of Ca (0.20% less than a 2:1 ratio of Ca to NPP; 2:1 ratio of Ca to NPP; 0.20% Ca greater than a 2:1 ratio of Ca to NPP; 0.40% Ca greater than a 2:1 ratio of Ca to NPP) and four levels of NPP (0.35, 0.40, 0.45 and 0.50%) for a total of 64 treatments. The primary basal diet was supplemented with a complete vitamin mix containing 5500 IU of cholecalciferol. Each diet was fed to six replicates per treatment; each pen having 6 birds. At 18 d birds were weighed, feed consumption determined and all birds killed for bone measurements. Toes from all birds within a pen were removed and ashed. Tibiae from both legs were removed and scored for incidence and severity of tibial dyschondroplasia and for incidence of Ca or P rickets. Ca: NPP ratios and Ca levels similar or higher than NRC (1994) recommendations appear necessary for adequate bird performance. Phy supplementation improved FCR, whereas the addition of 25-OH to diets already containing 5500 IU kg-1 of cholecalciferol had a negative effect on FCR due to a possible hypercalcemia condition. Bone development was improved by increasing NPP and Ca levels. Moreover, supplementation with 25-OH was effective in reducing leg abnormalities. Addition of 25-OH helped to relieve leg problems when suboptimal Ca levels were supplied while Phy supplementation was effective for this purpose when high Ca levels were given. These additives could be seen as a strategy to alleviate problems with suboptimal Ca: NPP ratios.
  C.A. Coto , F. Yan , S. Cerrate , Z. Wang , P. Sacakli and P.W. Waldroup
  A study was conducted utilizing a 2 x 2 x 4 x 4 factorial arrangements in which a nutritionally adequate diet was fed with and without 1200 FTU/kg of phytase and with or without 69 μg/kg of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, four levels of nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) (0.35, 0.40, 0.45, and 0.50%) and four levels of calcium (2:1 Ca:NPP ratio, 0.2% Ca less than the 2:1 ratio, 0.2% Ca more than the 2:1 ratio, and 0.4% Ca more than the 2:1 ratio) for a total of 64 treatments, each fed to two replicate pens of five male broilers in wire-floored battery brooders. At 14 d of age excreta samples were collected, frozen, freeze dried, and analyzed for total P (TP), Ca, and water-soluble P (WSP). The ratio of WSP/TP was calculated from these data. The TP, Ca and WSP in excreta increased as the NPP content of the diet increased. Phytase supplementation reduced TP and Ca but increased WSP concentration and the WSP/TP ratio; this effect might be reversed if levels of NPP lower than those evaluated in the present study are utilized to account for the improvement on phytate phosphorus digestion. The addition of Hy-D reduced TP and Ca concentration in broiler excreta. The most remarkable effect was seen by increasing dietary calcium levels above the 2:1 Ca:NPP ratio typically used in the poultry industry. As the dietary Ca increased, there were significantly reduced excreta levels of TP, WSP and the WSP/TP ratio was significantly reduced. Compared to chicks fed diets with the 2:1 Ca:NPP ratio, the WSP in excreta was reduced 40% by adding 0.20% more Ca and 54% by adding 0.40% more Ca. As the WSP fraction of broiler litter is the primary concern in eutrophication, increasing the dietary Ca level in conjunction with feeding closer to the P requirement should be a cost-effective means of combating the adverse effects of broiler litter on pastures.
  Z. Wang , S. Cerrate , C. Coto , P. Sacakli , F. Yan , F.G.P. Costa and P.W. Waldroup
  Two trials with identical experimental design were conducted approximately 20 months apart to evaluate the response of broiler chickens to the addition of NuPro®, a yeast product rich in nucleotides. In both trials, four dietary treatments were compared. The first treatment contained no NuPro®. For the second treatment, the diet with 2% NuPro® was fed only the first 7 days of life while for the third treatment, 2% NuPro® was fed for the first 14 d. For the fourth treatment, 2% NuPro® was fed for the first 7 days and also during the finisher period of 35-42 d of age. In both studies, each treatment was fed to six replicate groups of 60 male broilers of a commercial strain. Response to the addition of NuPro® varied between the two experiments. In the first study, addition of 2% NuPro® to the diet resulted in improvement in feed conversion. Response varied by age of bird and time during which the NuPro® was fed. At 7 d of age, there were no significant differences between birds that had been fed NuPro® and those fed the negative control diet. At 14 d of age, there were no significant differences in feed conversion among birds fed the various treatments, but feed conversion was numerically better for those birds that had been fed NuPro® for the first 7 or 14 d. At 35 d, birds that had been fed NuPro® for the first 7 d had significantly better feed conversion than those fed the control diet with birds fed NuPro® for the first 14 d being intermediate between these two groups. At 42 d, birds fed diets with 2% NuPro® for the first 7 d or for the first 7 d followed by feeding from 35-42 d had significantly lower feed conversion than those fed the control, with those fed NuPro® for the first 14 d being intermediate between these groups. However, in the second trial there was no significant effect of inclusion of NuPro on any of the parameters evaluated. There may be nutritional differences between batches of the product that influence the response of chicks.
 
 
 
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