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Articles by P. Muralidharan
Total Records ( 7 ) for P. Muralidharan
  Mukundh N. Balasubramanian , P. Muralidharan and G. Balamurugan
  The main objective of the study was to investigate about the anti hyperlipidemic potential of the ethanolic extract from the fruits of Pedalium murex at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/p.o. in high fat diet fed rats. Biochemical parameters like serum total cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured and compared with animals concurrently treated with reference standards Gemfibrozil and Atorvastatin. The ethanolic extract showed a significant decrease in triglycerides (p<0.01), LDL (p<0.001), VLDL (p<0.01), cholesterol (p<0.001) and a significant increase in HDL (p<0.05) levels at the tested doses.
  D. Sivaraman , P. Muralidharan and P. Panneerselvam
  Alzheimer’s disease is a primary degenerative disease of the central nervous system. The progression of Alzheimer’s disease will ultimately lead to dementia, behavioral and cognitive impairments. Alzheimer’s is the commonest cause of dementia, a group of progressive condition which involves especially short-term memory loss, poor concentration, poor sense of time and space, difficulty in finding words or understanding other people, difficulty in perceiving and interpreting surroundings, mood changes and emotional upsets. The present study was designed to determine the ameliorating effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Ficus hispida Linn. (EEFH) on (amyloid beta) Aβ 25-35-induced cognitive deficits and oxidative stress in mice. Animals were treated with EEFH for periods of 4 weeks dose-dependently (200 and 400 mg kg-1) then received a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ 25-35 (10 μg mouse-1). Behavioral changes in the mice were evaluated using passive avoidance, Y-maze, Hole board and water-maze tests. Anti-oxidant enzymes and neuro-transmitter levels were also been estimated. EEFH at the dose of 400 mg kg-1 significantly ameliorated the cognitive and memory deficits caused by i.c.v. injection of Aβ 25-35. EEFH attenuated the Aβ-induced increase in brain levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. There was an increase in glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and super oxide dismutase activity in EEFH treated groups. The acetyl cholinesterase activity in the brain was lower in EEFH supplemented groups than the Aβ-injected group. EEFH treated group showed a significant alteration in behavior when compare to negative control in Y maze, Plus-maze and also in water maze tests. These findings suggest EEFH exerts a protective effect against cognitive deficits induced by Aβ 25-35 accumulation in Alzheimer’s disease, because of its potential antioxidant property.
  D. Sivaraman , P. Panneerselvam and P. Muralidharan
  Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder primarily manifesting as a loss of memory, senile dementia, intra neuronal neurofibrillary tangle formation and cerebral parenchyma deposition of the β-amyloid protein in the form of amyloid plaques is the most stereotypic cognitive and neuropathological hallmarks of AD. The present study was designed to determine the ameliorating effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ipomoea aquatica (HAEIA) on amyloid beta (Aβ) 25-35-induced cognitive deficits and oxidative stress in mice. Animals were treated with HAEIA for periods of 4 weeks dose-dependently (200 and 400 mg kg–1) then received a single Intra Cerebro Ventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ 25-35 (10 μg/mouse). Cognitive behavioral changes in the mice were evaluated using step down inhibitory avoidance, object recognition test, y-maze, hole board, elevated plus maze and water-maze tests. Brian level neurotransmitter such as dopamine, noradrenaline serotonin, glutamate and metabolic enzymes like acetylcholineserase, monoamine oxidase A and B estimated by using spectrofluorimeter technique. Results obtained from the study indicate that HAEIA at the dose of 400 mg kg–1 significantly ameliorated the cognitive and memory deficits caused by ICV injection of Aβ 25-35. The acetyl cholinesterase, monoamine oxidase and glutamate activity in the brain was lower in HAEIA supplemented groups than the Aβ-injected group. The HAEIA significantly improves the level of serotonin, dopamine, nor-adrenaline in treatment group when compare to Aβ-injected group. In conclusion plant like ipomoea auatica often served has a valuable lead for the clinical management of AD with minimal side effects.
  M. Nandagopal , P. Muralidharan and G. Thirumurugan
  The present study investigated the role of methanolic root extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. (MEAR) in the levels of antioxidants, metabolic enzymes, neurotransmitters and histopathology studies in a model of global cerebral ischemia in rats. Global cerebral ischemia was induced by temporary bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 15 min followed by reperfusion in Wistar rats and the animals were pretreated with MEAR (200 and 400 mg kg-1) for 7 days before induction. After induction of ischemia by BCAO animals were again treated with MEAR for 7 days and the animals were sacrificed. Homogenized content of brain were estimated in control, sham and treatment groups. MEAR showed the significance of p<0.01 done by ANOVA and Dunetts in the levels of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation, catalase, protein levels, metabolic enzyme acetylcholine esterase and neurotransmitters glutamate, dopamine and serotonin levels. At the 7 days after ischemia a maximum of 85% protection of neurons in CA1region showed in treatment group at the dose 400 mg kg-1. The results showed cerebroprotective nature of MEAR and protection may be due to reduction of oxidative stress which occurs by alteration in levels of antioxidants, neurotransmitters and MEAR had the potential to use in treatment of ischemia.
  D. Sivaraman , S. Shantha Kumar , P. Muralidharan and Habibur Rahman
  Background: To investigate the effect of Methanol root extract of Hemidesmus indicus (MEHI) on cerebral infract by four vessel occlusion method. Method: A total of 36 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were studies. In the present study the animals were pretreated with MEHI for a period of 1week (200 and 400 mg kg-1) p.o. Cerebral ischemia was established by permanent occlusion of vertebral artery followed by 15 min occlusion of bilateral carotid arteries. After 24 h of reperfusion the animal behavior were evaluated for neuromuscular function, vestibulomotor function and complex neuromotor function. The treatment was continued for another week after surgery with root extract and the animals were sacrificed and the brain was removed and homogenized. The homogenized content was used for the estimation of anti-oxidant enzymes and various neurotransmitter levels. Results: The group treated with 200 and 400 mg kg-1 MEHI showed significant (p<0.01) improvement in neuromuscular, vestibulomotor, complex neuromuscular function when compared with negative control group. Significant increase in brain anti oxidant enzymes was observed in MEHI treated group when compared to negative control. The MEHI treated groups exhibited a significant decrease in the levels of acetyl choline esterase, glutamate and monoamine oxidase-B. Increased levels of dopamine and serotonin were observed in the treated group when compared with ischemic group. Conclusion: MEHI can improve the neurological status and may reduce the cerebral infract in ischemia-reperfusion injured rats.
  D. Sivaraman , P. Panneerselvam , P. Muralidharan and T. Purushoth Prabhu
  Objective: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the safety of an hydroalcholic extract of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (HAEIA) leaves by determining its potential toxicity after acute and sub-acute administration in rodent. Materials and Methods: For the acute study HAEIA was administered in single doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1 (p.o). General behavior, adverse effects and mortality were determined for up to 14 days. The sub-acute toxicity test was based on the daily administration of two doses of HAEIA (200 and 400 mg kg-1 body weight) for four weeks, 0.1% CMC served as control group. Results: In the acute and sub-acute study hydroalcoholic (Water plus ethanol) extract of Ipomoea aquatica leaves doesn’t caused any change in general behavior, adverse effects and mortality. Throughout the study period no sign of toxicity was registered. Conversely, the sub-acute doses stimulated slight increase in body weight of the animals treated test drug. Further it was observed that HAEIA at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg-1 did not modify the weight index. It was evident that daily oral dose of HAEIA at at both the dose level for 28 day days did not shown any significant change in hematological parameters and also no change observed in biological analysis of serum Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) levels. Conclusion: In view of the results obtained through acute toxicity and sub-acute study of Ipomoea aquatica (Water Spinach) which is consumed as a traditional medicine of india and china. No significant changes were observed in organ weights and histopathological results showed normal profile suggesting no morphological alterations there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of this plant was proved through this study which enables the research to carry out the lead invention from the natural resources.
  D. Sivaraman , P. Muralidharan and Habibur Rahman
  Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of a methanol extract of Ficus hispida Linn. Leaves in young adult mice. Materials and Methods: Anxiety in rodents was induced by administration of corticosterone (5 mg/kg/day), treated for 4 weeks developed an anxiety. Actophotometer, elevated plus maze, zero maze, hole board and rotarod paradigm were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the methanolic leaf extract Ficus hispida Linn. (MEFH) at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg-1. p.o. and diazepam 1 mg kg-1, i.p. were administered 30 min before the tests. Result: The results showed that the MEFH significantly increased the number of head poking and line crossing in the hole board test. In the elevated plus maze the MEFH at the dose of 400 mg kg-1 significantly increased the duration of exploration in open arm in similar way to that of diazepam. Further, in the zero maze the extract produced significant increase in time spent in open arm as compared to negative control. In the rotarod MEFH at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg-1 significantly decreased the fall off time which shows the muscle relaxing property of the plant. The spontaneous locomotor activity count, measured using actophotometer, was significantly decreased in animal pretreated with MEFH. Indicating the remarkable sedative effect of the plant. Conclusion: The result of the present study suggests that leaves of Ficus hispida Linn. may possess an anxiolytic effect.
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