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Articles by P. Maharjan
Total Records ( 4 ) for P. Maharjan
  P. Maharjan , T. Clark , M. Frank , B.B. Martins , M.K. Foy and S. Watkins
  Four commercially available hydrogen peroxide products were tested for residuals and efficacy over time. Each product was added at the rate of 59.14, 118.28 and 177.42 ml per 3780 ml of water creating stock solutions. Test solutions that actually mimic the bird drinking rate were made from each stock solution mixing at the rate of 29.57 ml of stock solution added to 3780 ml of water. Residual activities of test solutions prepared were measured from day 0 to day 5. Forty-eight hours post treatment, a 5 ml aliquot of water with a heavy microbial load was introduced into the test solutions as challenge and microbial plating for aerobic bacteria and mold was done for zero and one hour contact times. Results of this experiment suggest that an Effective Residual Concentration (ERC) of 25-50 ppm of hydrogen peroxide in test solution starts at 59. 14 ml of stock solution prepared for all products evaluated. Stabilized products stay at the higher residual level and can maintain ERC for a longer time than non-stabilized products. Significant bacterial reductions (p<0.05) within an hour of contact time was achieved at the lowest concentration tested, 59.14 ml of stock solution made, for all products provided that the ERC was maintained. Higher residuals or longer contact time were required for mold control.
  P. Maharjan , S. Cox , T. Clark and S. Watkins
  A bench top experiment was conducted to test three commercially available water sanitizing products for residuals and efficacy over time. Product A uses modified ambient oxygen to create hydroxyl ions in water and works based on an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP). Product B is 50% stabilized hydrogen peroxide and Product C is 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Two trials were conducted. Test solutions for Product A were made by infusing gas at 0.33 Liters Per Minute (LPM) diffusing into 1 liter of suboptimal water (microbial load >4.47 log10 cfu/ml; Chlorine (Cl) residual = 0 ppm). Stock solutions were first prepared for Product B and C. Stock solution for Product B was prepared at two different doses, 2 and 4 ml of the product, mixed with 128 ml of deionized water (Cl = 0 ppm) separately whereas for Product C, the stock was created mixing 4 ml of the product with 128 ml of deionized water. Test solutions for Product B and C that actually mimic the bird drinking rate were then made from each stock solution mixing at the rate of 1 ml of stock solution added to 128 ml of suboptimal water for a volume of 1L of suboptimal water. Water samples were taken for test solutions over a period of 24 h post treatment and plated for aerobic bacteria (APC) and mold counts. Residual levels for all the products were taken into account at each water sampling occasion. Results indicated that the AOP method can be used as an alternative water sanitation measure over the chemical methods.
  T. Cao , J.T. Weil , P. Maharjan , J. Lu and C.N. Coon
  Background and Objective: The requirement of sulfur amino acids for laying hens have been determined but the method in which methionine is regulated has not been studied. The aim of this research was to study the hepatic methionine-metabolizing enzymes and metabolites in laying hens. Materials and Methods: Five hundred forty Dekalb-XL laying hens were housed and fed a control diet until sampling. On day of sampling, six hens were sacrificed at each time period to allow for determination of hepatic enzymatic activities and metabolite concentrations during light and dark periods. Data was analyzed using the general linear models (GLM) procedure with statistical analysis software (SAS). Results: The enzymes and metabolites showed cyclical changes related to light and dark periods. During the light period of the day, layers showed elevated activities of methionine s-adenosyltransferase (EC; MAT), cystathionine ß-synthase (EC; CS) and cystathionase (EC; C-ase) and depressed activities of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (EC; BHMT) and N5methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (EC; MFMT), as compared to the dark period of the day. The hens also had a decreased methionine to cysteine ratio (Met/Cys ratio), an increased methylation ratio (s-adenosylmethionine to s-adenosylhomocysteine ratio; SAM/SAH ratio) and an increased cystathionine (CYST) concentration in the liver during the light period. Conclusion: The changes of the enzymatic activities and metabolite concentrations suggest that the methionine metabolism of laying hens during the light period was in favor of methionine degradation through cysteine synthesis. Alternatively, the metabolism of hens during the dark period was in favor of methionine conservation by limiting the conversion of methionine to cysteine. Thus, feeding hens a higher cysteine diet several hours before lights are turned off may prove beneficial to counteract the limited cysteine synthesis from dietary methionine during the dark period of the day.
  T. Cao , J.T. Weil , P. Maharjan , J. Lu and C.N. Coon
  Background and Objective: Two experiments were conducted to determine the total sulfur amino acid requirements in laying hens. The objective of Experiment 1 was to determine the digestible methionine and cystine requirements for laying hens. An additional experiment (Experiment 2) was conducted to determine the cystine requirement for laying hens and determine the utilization efficiencies of supplemental methionine and cystine to meet the cystine requirement. Materials and Methods: In Experiment 1, one hundred and seventy-six laying hens were randomly assigned into 11 dietary treatments for a six-week period. One group of hens received a corn-soybean meal control diet containing 2,899 kcal ME kg1 and 19.5% CP, while the remaining ten groups of hens received 10 test diets containing 2,850 kcal ME kg1 and 15% CP. Five diets were deficient in cystine (0.148% digestible cystine), containing digestible methionine levels of 0.143, 0.240, 0.337, 0.434 and 0.531% and another five diets were excessive in cystine (0.450% digestible cystine), containing digestible methionine levels of 0.143, 0.231, 0.317, 0.407 and 0.495%. An additional experiment (Experiment 2) was conducted by assigning one hundred sixty laying hens to one of two series of diets, which were formulated to contain 0.319% digestible methionine and 0.148% digestible cystine, same as that in Experiment 1, with exception of the methionine level. Four levels of equimolar amounts of methionine or cysteine (½ cystine) were added to the basal diet. The added levels were 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20% for methionine and 0.04, 0.08, 0.12 and 0.16% for cystine since the molecular weight of cysteine (½ cystine) is 80% of that of methionine. Data generated from each experiment was analyzed using the general linear models (GLM) and analysis of variance procedures with the help of statistical analysis software (SAS). A second-order polynomial regression analysis was conducted in order to determine the methionine requirements for laying hens. Results: The results showed that the requirement of digestible methionine and digestible cysteine for laying hens were 354 and 184 mg hen1 day1 for egg mass (EM), 349 and 193 mg hen1 day1 for feed conversion, 437 and 325 mg hen1 day1 for body weight change (BWC) and 367 and 189 mg hen1 day1 for EM+BWC, respectively. Deficient or excessive dietary methionine produced an increase of methionine degradation due to the increased body weight loss or the excessive dietary methionine, correspondingly. Optimum dietary methionine levels resulted in increased liver SAM/SAH concentration ratios (s-adenosylmethionine/s-adenosylhomocysteine) and decreased homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the utilization efficiencies of methionine and cysteine (½ cystine) were 100% on an equimolar basis for egg mass and 90% on an equimolar basis to prevent loss of body weight. When methionine was used to meet the cystine requirement, an utilization efficiency of 80% was adequate on a weight and concentration basis for egg mass and 72% for body weight maintenance. The practice of feeding ingredients with a substantial digestible cystine level for supporting body weight may be beneficial for laying hens.
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