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Articles by P. Kiepe
Total Records ( 4 ) for P. Kiepe
  A. Togola , E.A. Kotoklo , F.E. Nwilene , K. Amevoin , I.A. Glitho , O.E. Oyetunji and P. Kiepe
  Termites are considered useful insects in natural savannah because of their role in soil fertility regulation, soil aeration and soil porosity. However, they are perceived as a serious threat for tropical agriculture. Due to the complexity of their populations and habitats, they cause high losses on dryland crops, especially upland rice. The present study aimed to analyze the specific diversity of termites on rice (Oryza) in rainfed upland conditions in Benin and to assess the damage they cause. Sampling was carried out in natural savannah and rice fields with 10 upland varieties to evaluate the population of termites. Specific damage was located on the susceptible organs of rice plants. The study allowed the identification of four termite species in the shrub savannah and six species in rice field. The commonest species on rice were Microcerotermes parvus, Microtermes sp., Pseudacanthotermes militaris and Amitermes evuncifer. Termite attack was diverse, but mainly affected roots and stems. The results of this study contributed to the identification of the diversity of termite species on rainfed upland rice and also to the identification of the damage they cause in order to undertake targeted measures against the key species.
  A. Onasanya , P. Kiepe , A. Basso , G. Nkima , F.E. Nwilene , I. Ingelbrecht , J. Lamo , M.M. Ekperigin , R.O. Onasanya , O. Oyelakin , S. Winter and Y. Sere
  Genomic DNA fingerprinting is a useful tool for effective and reliable identification and differentiation of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) pathogen from rice. The study aimed to conduct molecular characterization and DNA fingerprinting of 23 Xoo isolates from East Africa and two Xoo isolates from IRRI (Philippines) as control. PCR analysis was carryout on genomic DNA of 25 Xoo isolates using 6 Xoo specific primer pairs. Cluster analyses of genetic data obtained from 25 Xoo DNA fingerprints revealed two major genotypes (GrpA and GrpB) among the 25 Xoo isolates. GrpA has three subgroups (GrpA1; GrpA2; GrpA3) and GrpB (GrpB1; GrpB2; GrpB3). GrpA genotype consists of 20 Xoo isolates from Uganda, Rwanda and Philippines while GrpB genotype has 5 Xoo isolates from Rwanda. Some Xoo isolates were identical (PX-1, PX-2; UX621, RX2101; RX554, UX623, RX4113; UX211, UX213, UX214, RX4112, UX215). The emergence of subgroup genotypes could possibly be due to mutations and interactions among isolates and strains in host cells. Some Xoo isolates from Rwanda and Uganda were identical suggesting possible pathogen migration between these countries and long-term survival. Durable resistance rice cultivars would need to overcome both GrpA and GrpB Xoo genotypes in order to survive after their deployment into different rice ecologies in East Africa.
  R.O. Onasanya , D.B. Olufolaji , A. Onasanya , Y. Sere , F.E. Nwilene , M. Wopereis and P. Kiepe
  Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) genus Sobemovirus is a highly variable pathogen that is very infectious to rice plant. This variability hinders rice breeding for durable resistance to the virus and effective deployment of improved cultivars in Southwest Nigeria. Disease surveys in 5 Southwest states (Lagos, Oyo, Ogun, Ekiti and Ondo) revealed RYMV disease incidence of between 15-70% in farmers’ fields and serological indexing confirmed 92% of collected leaf samples positive to RYMV with 24% from rice and 76% from weeds. The weed with 76% RYMV positive suggests being the main reservoir of RYMV in Southwest Nigeria. Biological test on collected fields leaf samples identified 3 groups (GroupA, GroupD and GroupE) of Resistance Breaking (RB) RYMV isolates and 2 groups (GroupB and GroupC) of normal isolates. Pathotyping 20 RYMV isolates against 10 differential varieties identified 17 isolates as Highly Pathogenic Isolates (HPI) and 3 as Mildly Pathogenic Isolates (MPI) while 4 rice varieties were Highly Resistant (HR), 2 were Moderately Resistant (MR) and 4 were susceptible. HPI isolates present in five states and MPI isolates in two states. Serological study using the same 20 RYMV isolates revealed two major Nigeria serogroup (NSg1 and NSg2) and four subgroups (NSg1a, NSg1b, NSg2a and NSg2b). NSg1a and NSg1b comprised both normal and RB isolates while NSg2a and NSg2b were typical of RB isolates only. This information would assist rice breeding programs to develop durable resistant cultivars to RYMV disease in Southwest Nigeria.
  A. Onasanya , A. Joseph , D.B. Olufolaji , M.M. Ekperigin , Y. Sere , F.E. Nwilene , P. Kiepe and R.O. Onasanya
  RYMV transmission by insect vectors is considered to fully represent how RYMV disease is spread under natural field conditions. The present study aimed to use Oxya hyla, Locris rubra and Chnootriba similes vectors after acquisition of the virus to determine RYMV movement and distribution in insect body and transmission to rice cultivars. RYMV susceptible BG 90-2 was sown in 5 L plastic pots each at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 m distance from test entries and seedlings were mechanically inoculated with a highly virulent RYMV Nigerian isolate 14 days after sowing. Seven days after inoculation of BG 90-2, test entries were sown in 5-litre plastic pots and same day Oxya hyla, Locris rubra and Chnootriba similes vectors were introduced into the screen house to feed on RYMV infected BG 90-2. RYMV content in Oxya hyla, Locris rubra and Chnootriba similes whole body was 71.8, 44.1 and 50 and head part was 42, 44.6 and 10.1%. RYMV incidence at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m vector migration distance was 14.6, 16.0 and 19.0% for Oxya hyla, 31.3, 35.2 and 39.6% for Locris rubra and 13.7, 16.2 and 19.9% for Chnootriba similes. Cluster dendrogram revealed three groups (GrpA, GrpB, GrpC) of RYMV cultivar screening methods. GrpA was typical of Locris rubra, GrpB has mechanical and Oxya hyla while Chnootriba similes formed GrpC. The information reported in this study would help to better understand RYMV disease epidemic in farmers’ fields and to develop durable resistant rice varieties against the disease.
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