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Articles by P. Jamal
Total Records ( 7 ) for P. Jamal
  Jalal K.C.A. , Md. Zahangir Alam , Suleyman A. Muyibi and P. Jamal
  Forty six bacterial strains were isolated from nine different sources in four treatment plants namely Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) sewage treatment plant, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) treatment plant-1,-2 and –3 to evaluate the bioconversion process in terms of efficient biodegradation and bioseparation. The bacterial strains isolated were found to be 52.2% (24 isolates) and 47.8% (22 isolates) in the IWK and IIUM treatment plants respectively. The results showed that the higher microbial population (9-10x104 cfu mLˉ1) was observed in the secondary clarifier of IWK treatment plant. Only the gram-staining identification was done in the strains isolated from IWK treatment plant not to be determined from IIUM. Among the isolates from IWK, 10 isolates of gram-positive bacillus (GPB) and gram-positive cocci (GPC), 10 isolates of gram-negative bacillus (GNB) and rest were both or undetermined. Gram-negative cocci (GNC) were not found in the isolates from IWK.
  A. Amid and P. Jamal
  This research reports the study that aims to enhance the activity of xanthine oxidase inhibitor, a secondary metabolite, found in Chrysanthemum indicum and to identify the most suitable elicitors with the optimize elicitation time and concentration. Many plant species are well known source of secondary metabolite with a variety of biological activities. Production of biologically active compounds using plant cell suspension culture approach, normally gives low result. Optimization studies to enhance xanthine oxidase inhibitor activity using different elicitor concentrations for three different types of elicitor (chitosan, yeast extract and Aspergilus niger) were investigated. A factorial design was used from MINITAB software for optimization of the process. Analysis of results proved that chitosan is the best elicitor to increase activity of xanthine oxidase inhibitor in C. indicum to 1.457 fold higher than the unelicited. The highest xanthine oxidase activity was obtained by chitosan elicitation at concentration of 0.16 g L-1 and it was elicited at 1.25 day cultivation or at 30 h culture with percentage inhibition of 61.818%.
  P. Jamal , M. Fahrurrazi Tompang and M. Zahangir Alam
  Two-steps optimization strategy based on statistical experimental design was carried out to enhance bioprotein production by liquid state bioconversion utilizing pineapple skins as substrate. A two-level Plackett-Burman design was employed first where 11 variables were studied for their influence on bioprotein production. Pineapple Skins Soluble (PSS) sugar content, KH2PO4 and NH4H2PO4 were the most significant variables for improving bioprotein production. A three-level Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed for maximizing the bioprotein production. A mathematical model was developed to show the effects of each medium component and their combinatorial interaction on bioprotein production. The optimal medium composition for maximum bioprotein production was PSS content 1.0%, KH2PO4 0.1% and NH4H2PO4 0.25%. The final experiment was carried out to validate the model, which has shown to produce 514.2 g kg-1 bioprotein on the 5th day of fermentation with a slight increase of 0.02% from the experimental run in CCD.
  M.N. Bari , M.Z. Alam , S.A. Muyibi , P. Jamal and A.A. Mamun
  An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of different particle size of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) and their distribution as new substrate for the production of citric acid through Solid State Bioconversion (SSB) in laboratory scale by Aspergillus niger. The experiment was carried out to observe the productivity of citric acid with different particle size of EFB in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks. The result obtained through this study showed that the 0.5 mm down graded particle of EFB gave the highest production of citric acid compared to other particle size. The maximum production of citric acid of 131.3 g kg-1-EFB with the production rate of 16.4 g kg-1-day was obtained from EFB with particle size of 0.5 mm after 8 days of bioconversion. Furthermore, the results of particle size distribution show that the well-graded particle size of EFB produced the highest citric acid compared to uniformly-graded and gap-graded particle.
  P. Jamal , A.A. Barkat and A. Amid
  Phenolics, which are widely distributed in plant kingdom, appear to have desirable medicinal properties and play a major role in both plant and animal health. Some have been reported to be antitumor agents and to exhibit antiviral and antimicrobial activities, hypotensive effects and antioxidant properties. These compounds, either as isolates or in conjunction with other compounds, may be used for various health benefits. In this study, forty types of Malaysian medicinal plants were examined to develop an understanding of the distribution of phenolics and to give an assessment of the diversity present in the selected plants. The selection of plants was based on their frequent usages by local folks for their medicinal benefits. Total phenolic content was analyzed by Folin and Ciocalteau’s phenol reagent and their concentration was expressed as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE). All plant samples gave positive result with varying concentrations. Highest amount was obtained from Piper betle L. which had phenolic content of 8986.67 mg L-1 GAE, while the lowest concentration of 133.33 mg L-1 GAE was obtained from Canna indica Linn. This information can be used to assess taxonomic classifications, evaluate potential sources of phenolic compounds for agricultural and pharmaceutical uses and evaluate breeding program results.
  W.D. Wan Chik , A. Amid and P. Jamal
  This research studied the cytotoxicity effect of tomato leaves methanol extract on cancer cells to address potential therapeutic in MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and its toxicity towards Vero cells. The extraction was done in a shake flask by 82% methanol, 1:10 (w/v), agitated at 22°C with 110 rpm within 24 h. Later, purification process was started by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) subjected to determine the best mobile phase for compound separation and collection by means of column chromatography. Next, the effect of purified sample towards MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and Vero cells were observed using in vitro cytotoxicity assay to indicate its active fractions and its half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). Purified sample gave a rational effect towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells with IC50 value of 5.85 μg mL-1 compared to Taxol with IC50 value of 0.039 μg mL-1. The purified sample can also be judged to be harmless as it has IC50 value of 765.6 μg mL-1 in Vero cells treatment while Taxol gave IC50 value of 0.045 μg mL-1.
  S.K. Abdul Mudalip , M.R. Abu Bakar , P. Jamal , Z. Alam and F. Adam
  Understanding of the nucleation events and metastable zone width are essential in the crystallization process. This study investigates the use of cheap process analytical technology tools namely conductivity in comparison with the turbidity system for in-line detection of polymorph nucleation event in the solution crystallization. The effects of different cooling rates and initial concentrations on Metastable Zone Width (MSZW), nucleation kinetics and polymorphism of mefenamic acid in ethyl acetate solution were analyzed. The MSZW data and nucleation kinetics parameter were estimated based on the recorded nucleation temperatures. The recorded nucleation temperatures based on in-line conductivity data are in agreement with the in-line turbidity system. The MSZW was found to increase with the increase of cooling rates and decrease with the increase of saturation concentration. The nucleation order and nucleation rate constant kn calculated from MSZW data using Nyvlt classical theory varied with the initial solution concentration. The highest solution concentration which was 3.6/100 g ethyl acetate, shows highest (0.1460) and lowest n (4.1374) values. This indicates fast nucleation at higher solution concentration. The crystallization using different cooling rates does not show significant effect on the final polymorphs chemistry where mefenamic acid Form I was produced.
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