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Articles by P. D. Home
Total Records ( 4 ) for P. D. Home
  P. D. Home , C. J. Bailey , J. Donaldson , H. Chen and M. W. Stewart

Aims To compare the efficacy and safety of either continuing or discontinuing rosiglitazone + metformin fixed-dose combination when starting insulin therapy in people with Type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on oral therapy.

Methods In this 24-week double-blind study, 324 individuals with Type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on maximum dose rosiglitazone + metformin therapy were randomly assigned to twice-daily premix insulin therapy (target pre-breakfast and pre-evening meal glucose ≤ 6.5 mmol/l) in addition to either rosiglitazone + metformin (8/2000 mg) or placebo.

Results Insulin dose at week 24 was significantly lower with rosiglitazone + metformin (33.5 ± 1.5 U/day, mean ± se) compared with placebo [59.0 ± 3.0 U/day; model-adjusted difference −26.6 (95% CI −37.7, −15,5) U/day, P < 0.001]. Despite this, there was greater improvement in glycaemic control [HbA1c rosiglitazone + metformin vs. placebo 6.8 ± 0.1 vs. 7.5 ± 0.1%; difference −0.7 (−0.8, −0.5)%, P < 0.001] and more individuals achieved glycaemic targets (HbA1c < 7.0% 70 vs. 34%, P < 0.001). The proportion of individuals reporting at least one hypoglycaemic event during the last 12 weeks of treatment was similar in the two groups (rosiglitazone + metformin vs. placebo 25 vs. 27%). People receiving rosiglitazone + metformin in addition to insulin reported greater treatment satisfaction than those receiving insulin alone. Both treatment regimens were well tolerated but more participants had oedema [12 (7%) vs. 4 (3%)] and there was more weight gain [3.7 vs. 2.6 kg; difference 1.1 (0.2, 2.1) kg, P = 0.02] with rosiglitazone + metformin.

Conclusions Addition of insulin to rosiglitazone + metformin enabled more people to reach glycaemic targets with less insulin, and was generally well tolerated.

  P. D. Home , N. P. Jones , S. J. Pocock , H. Beck-Nielsen , R. Gomis , M. Hanefeld , M. Komajda and P. Curtis

Aims To compare glucose control over 18 months between rosiglitazone oral combination therapy and combination metformin and sulphonylurea in people with Type 2 diabetes.

Methods RECORD, a multicentre, parallel-group study of cardiovascular outcomes, enrolled people with an HbA1c of 7.1–9.0% on maximum doses of metformin or sulphonylurea. If on metformin they were randomized to add-on rosiglitazone or sulphonylurea (open label) and if on sulphonylurea to rosiglitazone or metformin. HbA1c was managed to ≤ 7.0% by dose titration. A prospectively defined analysis of glycaemic control on the first 1122 participants is reported here, with a primary outcome assessed against a non-inferiority margin for HbA1c of 0.4%.

Results At 18 months, HbA1c reduction on background metformin was similar with rosiglitazone and sulphonylurea [difference 0.07 (95% CI −0.09, 0.23)%], as was the change when rosiglitazone or metformin was added to sulphonylurea [0.06 (−0.09, 0.20)%]. At 6 months, the effect on HbA1c was greater with add-on sulphonylurea, but was similar whether sulphonylurea was added to rosiglitazone or metformin. Differences in fasting plasma glucose were not statistically significant at 18 months [rosiglitazone vs. sulphonylurea −0.36 (−0.74, 0.02) mmol/l, rosiglitazone vs. metformin −0.34 (−0.73, 0.05) mmol/l]. Increased homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and reduced C-reactive protein were greater with rosiglitazone than metformin or sulphonylurea (all P ≤ 0.001). Body weight was significantly increased with rosiglitazone compared with sulphonylurea [difference 1.2 (0.4, 2.0) kg, P = 0.003] and metformin [difference 4.3 (3.6, 5.1) kg, P < 0.001].

Conclusions In people with diabetes, rosiglitazone in combination with metformin or sulphonylurea was demonstrated to be non-inferior to the standard combination of metformin + sulphonylurea in lowering HbA1c over 18 months, and produces greater improvements in C-reactive protein and basal insulin sensitivity but is also associated with greater weight gain.

  P. D. Home , L. Meneghini , U. Wendisch , R. E. Ratner , T. Johansen , T. E. Christensen , J. Jendle , A. P. Roberts and K. I. Birkeland
  Aims  The efficacy and safety of insulin degludec (degludec), a new-generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, was compared with insulin glargine (glargine) in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus in a 16-week, open-label, randomized trial. Health status, an important aspect of effective diabetes management, was also assessed.

Methods  Degludec (n = 59) or glargine (n = 59) were injected once daily, with insulin aspart at mealtimes. Health status assessment utilized the validated Short Form 36 Health Survey, version 2, which has two summary component scores for mental and physical well-being, each comprising four domains.

Results  At study end, HbA1c reductions were comparable between groups, but confirmed nocturnal hypoglycaemia was significantly less frequent with degludec [relative rate 0.42 (95% CI 0.25-0.69)], and overall hypoglycaemia numerically less frequent [relative rate 0.72 (95% CI 0.52-1.00)]. After 16 weeks, a significant improvement in Short Form 36 Health Survey mental component score of +3.01 (95% CI 0.32-5.70) was obtained for degludec against glargine, attributable to significant differences in the social functioning [+8.04 (95% CI 1.89-14.18)] and mental health domains [+2.46 (95% CI 0.10-4.82)]. For mental component score, Cohen's effect size was 0.42, indicating a small-to-medium clinically meaningful difference. The physical component score [+0.66 (95% CI -2.30 to 3.62)] and remaining domains were not significantly different between degludec and glargine.

Conclusions  In the context of comparable overall glycaemic control with glargine, degludec improved mental well-being as measured using the mental component score of the Short Form 36 Health Survey. The improvements in overall mental component score and the underlying social functioning and mental health domains with degludec compared with glargine may relate to the observed reduction in hypoglycaemic events.

  G. C. Hall , A. D. McMahon , M.-P. Dain , E. Wang and P. D. Home


We investigated use and efficacy of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists in UK practice.


People starting a GLP-1 receptor agonist (exenatide, liraglutide) or insulin (glargine, detemir, NPH) after a regimen of two or three oral glucose-lowering agents were identified from The Health Information Network observational primary care database (2007-2011). Mean change in HbA1c and body weight were compared at 1 year between cohorts, adjusting for baseline characteristics.


Baseline characteristics of GLP-1 receptor agonist (n = 1123) vs. insulin (n = 1842) users were HbA1c 78 vs. 84 mmol/mol (9.3 vs. 9.8%) and BMI 38.2 vs. 30.9 kg/m2. The GLP-1 receptor agonist cohort was younger, had shorter diabetes duration and follow-up, less microvascular disease and heart failure, higher estimated glomerular filtration rate and more use of oral glucose-lowering agents. Lower HbA1c reduction on GLP-1 receptor agonist [7 vs. 13 mmol/mol (0.6 vs. 1.2%) (n = 366 vs. 892)] was not statistically significant [adjusted mean difference −1.4 (95% CI −4.1, 1.2) mmol/mol], except in the highest HbA1c quintile [>96 mmol/mol (>10.9%); adjusted mean difference −17.8 (−28.6, −7.0) mmol/mol]. GLP-1 receptor agonist users lost weight [−4.5 vs. +1.5 kg; adjusted mean difference 4.7 (3.7, 5.8) kg; n = 335 vs. 634]. A UK 6-month target reduction for GLP-1 receptor agonists of 11 mmol/mol (1.0%) HbA1c and 3% weight was reached by 24.9% of those continuing treatment.


Those starting GLP-1 receptor agonists are heavier with better glycaemic control than those starting basal insulin. Subsequently, they have improved weight change, with similar HbA1c reduction unless baseline HbA1c is very high. The UK 6-month GLP-1 receptor agonist target is usually not reached.

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