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Articles by P. M Ridker
Total Records ( 9 ) for P. M Ridker
  D Conen , K. M Rexrode , M. A Creager and P. M Ridker

Background— The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with incident myocardial infarction and stroke and is linked with subclinical inflammation; however, prospective data pertaining to MetS and future peripheral artery disease (PAD) are sparse, with few studies examining the role of inflammation. We therefore evaluated the relationship between MetS, inflammation, and incident PAD.

Methods and Results— We conducted a prospective cohort study among 27 111 women free of baseline cardiovascular disease who were participating in the Women’s Health Study. Subjects were followed for incident symptomatic PAD (n=114; median cohort follow-up 13.3 years). We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare PAD risk among women with and without MetS. We also evaluated relationships between MetS and subclinical inflammation as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and adjusted for these biomarkers in multivariable models. Women with MetS had a 62% increased risk of future PAD (hazard ratio 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.38). After multivariable adjustment, MetS remained significantly associated with PAD (adjusted hazard ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 2.18), with a 21% risk increase per additional MetS-defining trait (adjusted hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.39). In women with and without MetS, respectively, median levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were 4.0 versus 1.5 mg/L (P<0.0001), and median levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were 374 versus 333 ng/mL (P<0.0001). When high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were added to multivariable models, risk associated with MetS was substantially attenuated and no longer significant (hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.75 to 1.73).

Conclusions— MetS is associated with an increased risk of future symptomatic PAD in women. This risk appears to be mediated largely by the effects of inflammation and endothelial activation.

  B. M Everett , R. J Glynn , J. G MacFadyen and P. M Ridker

Background— Prior primary prevention trials of statin therapy that used cholesterol criteria for enrollment have not reported significant decreases in stroke risk. We evaluated whether statin therapy might reduce stroke rates among individuals with low levels of cholesterol but elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

Methods and Results— In Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER), 17 802 apparently healthy men and women with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <130 mg/dL and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels ≥2.0 mg/L were randomly allocated to rosuvastatin 20 mg daily or placebo and then followed up for the occurrence of a first stroke. After a median follow-up of 1.9 years (maximum, 5.0 years), rosuvastatin resulted in a 48% reduction in the hazard of fatal and nonfatal stroke as compared with placebo (incidence rate, 0.18 and 0.34 per 100 person-years of observation, respectively; hazard ratio 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.79; P=0.002), a finding that was consistent across all examined subgroups. This finding was due to a 51% reduction in the rate of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.81; P=0.004), with no difference in the rates of hemorrhagic stroke between the active and placebo arms (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.24 to 1.88; P=0.44).

Conclusion— Rosuvastatin reduces by more than half the incidence of ischemic stroke among men and women with low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels who are at risk because of elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

Clinical Trial Registration— Unique identifier: NCT00239681.

  S Mora , R. J Glynn , J Hsia , J. G MacFadyen , J Genest and P. M Ridker

Background— Statin therapy in women without cardiovascular disease (CVD) is controversial, given the insufficient evidence of benefit. We analyzed sex-specific outcomes in the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) and synthesized the results with prior trials.

Methods and Results— JUPITER participants included 6801 women ≥60 years of age and 11 001 men ≥50 years of age with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥2 mg/L and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <130 mg/dL randomized to rosuvastatin versus placebo. Meta-analysis studies were randomized placebo-controlled statin trials with predominantly or exclusively primary prevention in women and sex-specific outcomes (20 147 women; >276 CVD events; mean age, 63 to 69 years). Absolute CVD rates (per 100 person-years) in JUPITER women for rosuvastatin and placebo (0.57 and 1.04, respectively) were lower than for men (0.88 and 1.54, respectively), with similar relative risk reduction in women (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.37 to 0.80; P=0.002) and men (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.73; P<0.001). In women, there was significant reduction in revascularization/unstable angina and nonsignificant reductions in other components of the primary end point. Meta-analysis of 13 154 women (240 CVD events; 216 total deaths) from exclusively primary prevention trials found a significant reduction in primary CVD events with statins by a third (relative risk, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.49 to 0.82; P<0.001; P for heterogeneity=0.56) with a smaller nonsignificant effect on total mortality (relative risk, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.53 to 1.15; P=0.21; P for heterogeneity=0.20). Similar results were obtained for trials that were predominantly but not exclusively primary prevention.

Conclusion— JUPITER demonstrated that in primary prevention rosuvastatin reduced CVD events in women with a relative risk reduction similar to that in men, a finding supported by meta-analysis of primary prevention statin trials.

Clinical Trial Registration— URL: Unique identifier: NCT00239681.

  J. S Danik , G Pare , D. I Chasman , R. Y.L Zee , D. J Kwiatkowski , A Parker , J. P Miletich and P. M Ridker

Background— Fibrinogen is a multifunctional circulating glycoprotein involved in wound healing, thrombosis, platelet aggregation, and inflammation, and elevated levels predict vascular disease. Despite evidence of crucial biological function and moderate heritability, comprehensive analysis of the influence of genetic variation on fibrinogen is not available.

Methods and Results— To address this issue, we undertook a genome-wide association study evaluating the potential relationships between 337 343 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and plasma fibrinogen levels among 17 686 apparently healthy women participating in the Women’s Genome Health Study. As C-reactive protein is also an inflammatory marker known to predict cardiovascular diseases, we compared the determinants of fibrinogen levels with those of C-reactive protein. Four novel loci were identified, in addition to the fibrinogen gene cluster, which were associated with fibrinogen levels at genome-wide levels of significance (range of probability values from 8.82x10–09 to 8.04x10–39). Two of the loci are related to common chronic inflammatory diseases: the first, at locus 5q31.1 (SLC22A5, SLC22A4, IRF1), lies immediately adjacent to a locus linked to Crohn disease (P value for lead SNP, 1.24x10–12) and the second, at locus 17q25.1 (CD300LF, SLC9A3R1, NAT9), has been associated with psoriasis (P value for lead SNP, 7.72x10–11). A third locus at 1q21.3 (IL6R) lies within the interleukin 6 receptor gene, a critical component of the inflammatory cascade (P value for lead SNP, 1.80x10–11). A novel locus at 2q34 (CPSI) participates in the urea cycle (P=8.82x10–09). The majority of implicated SNPs showed little evidence of dual association with C-reactive protein levels.

Conclusions— A genome-wide survey of the human genome identifies novel loci related to common chronic inflammatory diseases as genetic determinants of fibrinogen levels, in addition to loci that relate to the inflammatory cascade, the urea cycle, and the fibrinogen gene cluster.

  G Pare , D. I Chasman , A. N Parker , R. R.Y Zee , A Malarstig , U Seedorf , R Collins , H Watkins , A Hamsten , J. P Miletich and P. M Ridker

Background— Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid whose plasma concentration has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases, neural tube defects, and loss of cognitive function in epidemiological studies. Although genetic variants of MTHFR and CBS are known to influence homocysteine concentration, common genetic determinants of homocysteine remain largely unknown.

Methods and Results— To address this issue comprehensively, we performed a genome-wide association analysis, testing 336 469 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 13 974 healthy white women. Although we confirm association with MTHFR (1p36.22; rs1801133; P=8.1x10–35) and CBS (21q22.3; rs6586282; P=3.2x10–10), we found novel associations with CPS1 (2q34; rs7422339; P=1.9x10–11), MUT (6p12.3; rs4267943; P=2.0x10–9), NOX4 (11q14.3; rs11018628; P=9.6x10–12), and DPEP1 (16q24.3; rs1126464; P=1.2x10–12). The associations at MTHFR, DPEP1, and CBS were replicated in an independent sample from the PROCARDIS study, whereas the association at CPS1 was only replicated among the women.

Conclusions— These associations offer new insight into the biochemical pathways involved in homocysteine metabolism and provide opportunities to better delineate the role of homocysteine in health and disease.

  P. M Ridker , F. A.H Fonseca , J Genest , A. M Gotto , J. J.P Kastelein , W Koenig , P Libby , A. J Lorenzatti , B. G Nordestgaard , J Shepherd , J. T Willerson , R. J Glynn and for the JUPITER Study Group

Background— As recently demonstrated, random allocation to rosuvastatin results in large relative risk reductions for first cardiovascular events among apparently healthy men and women with low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. However, whether the absolute risk reduction among such individuals justifies wide application of statin therapy in primary prevention is a controversial issue with broad policy and public health implications.

Methods and Results— Absolute risk reductions and consequent number needed to treat (NNT) values were calculated across a range of end points, timeframes, and subgroups using data from Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER), a randomized evaluation of rosuvastatin 20 mg versus placebo conducted among 17 802 apparently healthy men and women with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <130 mg/dL and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥2 mg/L. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to address the potential impact that alternative statin regimens might have on a similar primary prevention population. For the end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, or death, the 5-year NNT within JUPITER was 20 (95% CI, 14 to 34). All subgroups had 5-year NNT values for this end point below 50; as examples, 5-year NNT values were 17 for men and 31 for women, 21 for whites and 19 for nonwhites, 18 for those with body mass index ≤25 kg/m2 and 21 for those with body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2, 9 and 26 for those with and without a family history of coronary disease, 19 and 22 for those with and without metabolic syndrome, and 14 and 37 for those with estimated Framingham risks greater or less than 10%. For the net vascular benefit end point that additionally included venous thromboembolism, the 5-year NNT was 18 (95% CI, 13 to 29). For the restricted "hard" end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death, the 5-year NNT was 29 (95% CI, 19 to 56). In sensitivity analyses addressing the theoretical utility of alternative agents, 5-year NNT values of 38 and 57 were estimated for statin regimens that deliver 75% and 50% of the relative benefit observed in JUPITER, respectively. All of these calculations compare favorably to 5-year NNT values previously reported in primary prevention for the use of statins among hyperlipidemic men (5-year NNT, 40 to 70), for antihypertensive therapy (5-year NNT, 80 to 160), or for aspirin (5-year NNT, >300).

Conclusions— Absolute risk reductions and consequent NNT values associated with statin therapy among those with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are comparable if not superior to published NNT values for several widely accepted interventions for primary cardiovascular prevention, including the use of statin therapy among those with overt hyperlipidemia.

Clinical Trial Registration— Identifier NCT00239681.

  P. M Ridker , J. G MacFadyen , B. G Nordestgaard , W Koenig , J. J. P Kastelein , J Genest and R. J. Glynn

Recent primary prevention guidelines issued in Canada endorse the use of statin therapy among individuals at "intermediate risk" who have elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). However, trial data directly addressing whether this recommendation defines a patient population in which statin therapy is effective have not previously been published.

Methods and Results—

In the Justification for Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial, which demonstrated a 44% reduction in first vascular events when rosuvastatin 20 mg was compared with placebo among 17 802 primary prevention patients with LDL cholesterol <130 mg/dL and hsCRP ≥2 mg/L, 6091 participants (2525 women, 3566 men) had baseline estimated 10-year Framingham risks of 5% to 10% and 7340 participants (1404 women, 5936 men) had baseline estimated Framingham risk of 11% to 20%. In these 2 "intermediate risk" subgroups, relative risk reductions consistent with the overall trial treatment effect were observed (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.84; 5-year number needed to treat=40, P=0.005 for those with 5% to 10% risk; hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.68, 5-year number needed to treat=18, P<0.0001 for those with 11% to 20% risk). Use of the Reynolds Risk Score to stratify the study population gave similar results but reclassified large numbers of individuals into lower- or higher-risk groups. The majority of women with elevated hsCRP who benefited from rosuvastatin were at 5% to 10% 10-year risk at study entry using either global risk scoring system.


Consistent with recent evidence-based Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for primary prevention, the JUPITER trial demonstrates that rosuvastatin 20 mg significantly reduces major cardiovascular events among men and women with elevated hsCRP and "intermediate risk" defined either as 5% to 10% or 10% to 20% 10-year risk.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: Unique identifier: NCT00239681.

  J. H Lichtman , N. P Lorenze , G D'Onofrio , J. A Spertus , S. T Lindau , T. M Morgan , J Herrin , H Bueno , J. A Mattera , P. M Ridker and H. M. Krumholz

Among individuals with ischemic heart disease, young women with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) represent an extreme phenotype associated with an excess mortality risk. Although women younger than 55 years of age account for less than 5% of hospitalized AMI events, almost 16 000 deaths are reported annually in this group, making heart disease a leading killer of young women. Despite a higher risk of mortality compared with similarly aged men, young women have been the subject of few studies.

Methods and Results—

Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients (VIRGO) is a large, observational study of the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of young women and men with AMI. VIRGO will enroll 2000 women, 18 to 55 years of age, with AMI and a comparison cohort of 1000 men with AMI from more than 100 participating hospitals. The aims of the study are to determine sex differences in the distribution and prognostic importance of biological, demographic, clinical, and psychosocial risk factors; to determine whether there are sex differences in the quality of care received by young AMI patients; and to determine how these factors contribute to sex differences in outcomes (including mortality, hospitalization, and health status). Blood serum and DNA for consenting participants will be stored for future studies.


VIRGO will seek to identify novel and prognostic factors that contribute to outcomes in this young AMI population. Results from the study will be used to develop clinically useful risk-stratification models for young AMI patients, explain sex differences in outcomes, and identify targets for intervention.

  D Conen , R. J Glynn , P. M Ridker , J. E Buring and M. A. Albert

The aim of this study was to examine the association between socioeconomic status, blood pressure (BP) progression, and incident hypertension.

Methods and results

We included 27 207 female health professionals free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Participants were classified into five education and six income categories. The main outcome variables were BP progression at 48 months of follow-up and incident hypertension during the entire study period. At 48 months, 48.1% of women had BP progression. The multivariable adjusted relative risks [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for BP progression were 1.0 (referent), 0.96 (0.92–1.00), 0.92 (0.88–0.96), 0.90 (0.85–0.94), and 0.84 (0.78–0.91) (P for trend <0.0001) across increasing education categories and 1.0 (referent), 1.01 (0.94–1.08), 0.99 (0.93–1.06), 0.97 (0.91–1.04), 0.96 (0.90–1.03), and 0.89 (0.83–0.96) across increasing income categories (P for trend = 0.0001). During a median follow-up of 9.8 years, 8248 cases of incident hypertension occurred. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) were 1.0 (referent), 0.92 (0.86–0.99), 0.85 (0.79–0.92), 0.87 (0.80–0.94), and 0.74 (0.65–0.84) (P for trend <0.0001) across increasing education categories and 1.0 (referent), 1.07 (0.95–1.21), 1.07 (0.95–1.20), 1.06 (0.94–1.18), 1.04 (0.93–1.16), and 0.93 (0.82–1.06) (P for trend 0.08) across increasing income categories. In joint analyses, education but not income remained associated with BP progression and incident hypertension.


Socioeconomic status, as determined by education but not by income, is a strong independent predictor of BP progression and incident hypertension in women.

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