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Articles by P. M Matthews
Total Records ( 3 ) for P. M Matthews
  G Douaud , C Mackay , J Andersson , S James , D Quested , M. K Ray , J Connell , N Roberts , T. J Crow , P. M Matthews , S Smith and A. James
 

Early-onset schizophrenia appears to be clinically more severe than the adult-onset form of the disease. In a previous study, we showed that anatomically related grey and white matter abnormalities found in adolescents patients were larger and more widespread than what had been reported in the literature on adult schizophrenia. Particularly, we found novel structural abnormalities in the primary sensorimotor and premotor systems. Here, we tested alternative hypotheses: either this striking sensorimotor-related pattern is an artefact due to a better sensitivity of the methods, or apparent greater structural abnormalities in the early-onset population are specifically associated with earlier disease onset. Then, if we were to find such characteristic structural pattern, we would test whether these anatomical abnormalities would remain static or, conversely, show dynamic changes in the still developing brain. To address these questions, we combined a cross-sectional study of brain structure for adolescent-onset patients (n = 25) and adult-onset patients (n = 35) and respective matched healthy subjects with a longitudinal study of adolescent-onset patients (n = 12, representative subset of the cross-sectional group) and matched healthy controls for >2 years. Looking at differences between adolescent and adult patients’ grey matter volume and white matter microstructure abnormalities, we first confirmed the specificity (especially in motor-related areas) and the greater severity of structural abnormalities in the adolescent patients. Closer examination revealed, however, that such greater anomalies seemed to arise because adolescent patients fail to follow the same developmental time course as the healthy control group. Longitudinal analysis of a representative subset of the adolescent patient and matched healthy populations corroborated the delayed and altered maturation in both grey and white matters. Structural abnormalities specific to adolescent-onset schizophrenia in the sensori-motor cortices and corticospinal tract were less marked or even disappeared within the longitudinal period of observation, grey matter abnormalities in adolescent patients evolving towards the adult-onset pattern as defined by recent meta-analyses of adult schizophrenia. Combining cross-sectional adolescent and adult datasets with longitudinal adolescent dataset allowed us to find a unique, abnormal trajectory of grey matter maturation regardless of the age at onset of symptoms and of disease duration, with a lower and later peak than for healthy subjects. Taken together, these results suggest common aetiological mechanisms for adolescent- and adult-onset schizophrenia with an altered neurodevelopmental time course in the schizophrenic patients that is particularly salient in adolescence.

  D Kasperaviciute , C. B Catarino , E. L Heinzen , C Depondt , G. L Cavalleri , L. O Caboclo , S. K Tate , J Jamnadas Khoda , K Chinthapalli , L. M. S Clayton , K. V Shianna , R. A Radtke , M. A Mikati , W. B Gallentine , A. M Husain , S Alhusaini , D Leppert , L. T Middleton , R. A Gibson , M. R Johnson , P. M Matthews , D Hosford , K Heuser , L Amos , M Ortega , D Zumsteg , H. G Wieser , B. J Steinhoff , G Kramer , J Hansen , T Dorn , A. M Kantanen , L Gjerstad , T Peuralinna , D. G Hernandez , K. J Eriksson , R. K Kalviainen , C. P Doherty , N. W Wood , M Pandolfo , J. S Duncan , J. W Sander , N Delanty , D. B Goldstein and S. M. Sisodiya
 

Partial epilepsies have a substantial heritability. However, the actual genetic causes are largely unknown. In contrast to many other common diseases for which genetic association-studies have successfully revealed common variants associated with disease risk, the role of common variation in partial epilepsies has not yet been explored in a well-powered study. We undertook a genome-wide association-study to identify common variants which influence risk for epilepsy shared amongst partial epilepsy syndromes, in 3445 patients and 6935 controls of European ancestry. We did not identify any genome-wide significant association. A few single nucleotide polymorphisms may warrant further investigation. We exclude common genetic variants with effect sizes above a modest 1.3 odds ratio for a single variant as contributors to genetic susceptibility shared across the partial epilepsies. We show that, at best, common genetic variation can only have a modest role in predisposition to the partial epilepsies when considered across syndromes in Europeans. The genetic architecture of the partial epilepsies is likely to be very complex, reflecting genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Larger meta-analyses are required to identify variants of smaller effect sizes (odds ratio <1.3) or syndrome-specific variants. Further, our results suggest research efforts should also be directed towards identifying the multiple rare variants likely to account for at least part of the heritability of the partial epilepsies. Data emerging from genome-wide association-studies will be valuable during the next serious challenge of interpreting all the genetic variation emerging from whole-genome sequencing studies.

  C. J Stagg , M Wylezinska , P. M Matthews , H Johansen Berg , P Jezzard , J. C Rothwell and S. Bestmann
 

Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) is a novel transcranial stimulation technique that causes significant inhibition of synaptic transmission for ≤1 h when applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) in humans. Here we use magnetic resonance spectroscopy to define mechanisms mediating this inhibition by noninvasively measuring local changes in the cortical concentrations of -aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate/glutamine (Glx). cTBS to the left M1 led to an increase in GABA compared with stimulation at a control site without significant change in Glx. This direct evidence for increased GABAergic interneuronal activity is framed in terms of a new hypothesis regarding mechanisms underlying cTBS.

 
 
 
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