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Articles by P White
Total Records ( 5 ) for P White
  R Sargur , P White and W. Egner

Cryoglobulins are serum immunoglobulins that precipitate at temperatures below 37°C and re-dissolve on warming. Cryoglobulinaemia leads to variable symptoms including characteristic purpura, ischaemia of extremities, renal failure, peripheral neuropathy, abdominal pain secondary to intestinal ischaemia and arthralgias. Cryoglobulin testing is underutilized in clinical practice. It has been neglected in clinical laboratories and by clinicians due to several factors, such as the length of time it takes for serum cryoglobulin analysis to be performed in the laboratory, the perceived difficulty in getting optimal sampling conditions and a failure to appreciate that even apparently low levels of cryoglobulin can be associated with severe symptoms in some patients. The most important variable confounding standardization of cryoglobulin testing is improper sample handling. A recent report critically appraising the current practice of cryoglobulin evaluation in 137 laboratories in Europe by United Kingdom National External Quality Assurance Scheme (UKNEQAS) illustrated the wide variability in practice. Although many clinical laboratories perform cryoglobulin evaluation, there are widespread differences in the methodology used and the care with which this is carried out and this leads to considerable intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability. The most common sources of error are false-negative results due to loss of cryoprecipitate during transport and storage. Better standardization is needed to avoid missed diagnoses and improve the comparability of results. Laboratories should ensure that sample temperature is maintained at 37°C until the serum is separated. In this article, we briefly review the classification and clinical features of cryoglobulins and suggest best practice guidelines for laboratory detection and identification of cryoglobulins.

  N Saunders , L Otago , M Romiti , A Donaldson , P White and C. Finch

For effective sports injury prevention, information is needed about the implementation context for interventions. This study describes coaches' feedback on the implementation of an evidence-informed injury prevention programme in community junior netball using coaches' perceptions and the RE–AIM framework.


A lower-limb injury prevention programme (Down to Earth; D2E), for teaching safe-landing techniques, was delivered to 31 coaches from 31 junior community netball teams in a 1-h workshop. Coaches then delivered a 6-week programme at team training sessions starting in the week before the competition season commenced. 65% of coaches completed a feedback survey 17 weeks after they had delivered the programme.


Most (88%) coaches believed that D2E improved their players' ability to perform correct landing techniques in games and that players had retained these improvements over the season. The majority (83%) indicated that an improvement in player athletic attributes was the greatest advantage of D2E, followed by a reduction in injury risk. Identified barriers to implementing D2E were running out of time and very young players finding the drills too difficult. Coaches reported that they needed more ideas for training drills that could be incorporated into their programmes and believed that their own coaching training did not adequately prepare them to implement an injury prevention programme.


Although coaches believed that D2E was effective in developing correct landing techniques, some modifications are needed to make it more suitable for younger players and coach education by accreditation courses could be improved to support the implementation of injury prevention programmes.

  S Rieck , P White , J Schug , A. J Fox , O Smirnova , N Gao , R. K Gupta , Z. V Wang , P. E Scherer , M. P Keller , A. D Attie and K. H. Kaestner

The inability of the ß-cell to meet the demand for insulin brought about by insulin resistance leads to type 2 diabetes. In adults, ß-cell replication is one of the mechanisms thought to cause the expansion of ß-cell mass. Efforts to treat diabetes require knowledge of the pathways that drive facultative ß-cell proliferation in vivo. A robust physiological stimulus of ß-cell expansion is pregnancy and identifying the mechanisms underlying this stimulus may provide therapeutic leads for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The peak in ß-cell proliferation during pregnancy occurs on d 14.5 of gestation in mice. Using advanced genomic approaches, we globally characterize the gene expression signature of pancreatic islets on d 14.5 of gestation during pregnancy. We identify a total of 1907 genes as differentially expressed in the islet during pregnancy. The islet’s ability to compensate for relative insulin deficiency during metabolic stress is associated with the induction of both proliferative and survival pathways. A comparison of the genes induced in three different models of islet expansion suggests that diverse mechanisms can be recruited to expand islet mass. The identification of many novel genes involved in islet expansion during pregnancy provides an important resource for diabetes researchers to further investigate how these factors contribute to the maintenance of not only islet mass, but ultimately ß-cell mass.

  P White , S. M Smith , D Hevey and T. O'Dowd


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological and social factors and diabetes outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes and their family members.


A total of 153 patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed at a diabetes outpatient clinic and postal questionnaires were sent to nominated family members. The measures examined were diabetes knowledge, social support, well-being, and illness perceptions.


When compared with those with diabetes, family members reported lower positive well-being and lower levels of satisfaction with support. They also perceived diabetes as a more cyclical illness, which was controlled more by treatment than by the individual. Family members also reported that the person with diabetes was more emotionally distressed and knew more about diabetes than the patient had actually reported himself or herself. There were no differences between the family members of those in good or poor glycaemic control.


This study reinforces the importance of understanding social context and illness beliefs in diabetes management. It also highlights the potential for including family members in discussions and education about diabetes management.

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