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Articles by P Sullivan
Total Records ( 4 ) for P Sullivan
  R. H Perlis , J. W Smoller , J Mysore , M Sun , T Gillis , S Purcell , M Rietschel , M. M Nothen , S Witt , W Maier , D. V Iosifescu , P Sullivan , A. J Rush , M Fava , H Breiter , M Macdonald and J. Gusella
  Objective

Presymptomatic individuals with the Huntingtin (HTT) CAG expansion mutation that causes Huntington's disease may have higher levels of depressive symptoms than healthy comparison populations. However, the prevalence of HTT CAG repeat expansions among individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder has not been established.

Method

This was a case-control genetic association study of HTT CAG allele size in two discovery cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder and comparison subjects without major depression as well as a replication cohort of individuals with major depression and comparison subjects without major depression.

Results

CAG repeat lengths of 36 or greater were observed in six of 3,054 chromosomes from individuals with major depression, compared with none of 4,155 chromosomes from comparison subjects. In a third cohort, one expanded allele was observed among 1,202 chromosomes in the major depression group, compared with none of 2,678 chromosomes in comparison subjects. No clear pattern of clinical features was shared among individuals with the expanded repeats.

Conclusions

In clinical populations of individuals diagnosed with major depression, approximately 3 in 1,000 carried expanded HTT CAG alleles.

  J Huang , R. H Perlis , P. H Lee , A. J Rush , M Fava , G. S Sachs , J Lieberman , S. P Hamilton , P Sullivan , P Sklar , S Purcell and J. W. Smoller
  Objective:

Family and twin studies indicate substantial overlap of genetic influences on psychotic and mood disorders. Linkage and candidate gene studies have also suggested overlap across schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to apply genomewide association study (GWAS) analysis to address the specificity of genetic effects on these disorders.

Method:

The authors combined GWAS data from three large effectiveness studies of schizophrenia (CATIE, genotyped: N=741), bipolar disorder (STEP-BD, geno-typed: N=1,575), and major depressive disorder (STAR*D, genotyped: N=1,938) as well as from psychiatrically screened control subjects (NIMH-Genetics Repository: N=1,204). A two-stage analytic procedure involving an omnibus test of allele frequency differences among case and control groups was applied, followed by a model selection step to identify the best-fitting model of allelic effects across disorders.

Results:

The strongest result was seen for a single nucleotide polymorphism near the adrenomedullin (ADM) gene (rs6484218), with the best-fitting model indicating that the effect was specific to bipolar II disorder. Findings also revealed evidence suggesting that several genes may have effects that transcend clinical diagnostic boundaries, including variants in NPAS3 that showed pleiotropic effects across schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

Conclusions:

This study provides the first genomewide significant evidence implicating variants near the ADM gene on chromosome 11p15 in psychopathology, with effects that appear to be specific to bipolar II disorder. Although genomewide signifi-cant evidence of cross-disorder effects was not detected, the results provide evidence that there are both pleiotropic and disorder-specific effects on major mental illness and illustrate an approach to dissecting the genetic basis of mood and psychotic disorders that can inform future large-scale cross-disorder GWAS analyses.

  A Chandrasekaran , W. E McKeand , P Sullivan , W DeMaio , R Stoltz and J. Scatina
 

Bazedoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator under development for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The disposition of [14C]bazedoxifene was determined in six healthy postmenopausal women after administration of a single oral dose of 20 mg (200 µCi). After dosing, blood was collected at frequent intervals, and urine and fecal samples were collected for up to 10 days. Aliquots of plasma, blood, urine, and fecal homogenates were analyzed for concentrations of radioactivity. Bazedoxifene metabolite profiles in plasma and feces were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with radioactivity flow detection; metabolite structures were confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bazedoxifene was rapidly absorbed, exhibiting a mean peak plasma concentration of 3.43 ng/ml at 1.2 h postdose. The total mean recovery of the radioactive dose in excreta was 85.6%, with the majority recovered in feces (84.7%) and only a small fraction (0.81%) in urine. Radiochromatograms of plasma revealed that glucuronidation was the major metabolic pathway; little or no cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism was evident. The majority of circulating radioactivity was constituted by metabolites, with bazedoxifene-5-glucuronide being the predominant metabolite (up to 95%). Bazedoxifene-4'-glucuronide was a minor metabolite (up to 20%), and unchanged bazedoxifene represented 0 to 13% of the radioactivity in most plasma samples. Unchanged bazedoxifene was the major radioactive component in feces, however, reflecting unabsorbed drug and/or glucuronides that were hydrolyzed by intestinal bacterial enzymes. [14C]Bazedoxifene was generally well tolerated. These findings demonstrated that, after oral administration in healthy postmenopausal women, bazedoxifene was rapidly absorbed, metabolized via glucuronidation, and excreted predominantly in feces.

  A Chandrasekaran , W. E McKeand , P Sullivan , W DeMaio , R Stoltz and J. Scatina
 

Bazedoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator under development for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The disposition of [14C]bazedoxifene was determined in six healthy postmenopausal women after administration of a single oral dose of 20 mg (200 µCi). After dosing, blood was collected at frequent intervals, and urine and fecal samples were collected for up to 10 days. Aliquots of plasma, blood, urine, and fecal homogenates were analyzed for concentrations of radioactivity. Bazedoxifene metabolite profiles in plasma and feces were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with radioactivity flow detection; metabolite structures were confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bazedoxifene was rapidly absorbed, exhibiting a mean peak plasma concentration of 3.43 ng/ml at 1.2 h postdose. The total mean recovery of the radioactive dose in excreta was 85.6%, with the majority recovered in feces (84.7%) and only a small fraction (0.81%) in urine. Radiochromatograms of plasma revealed that glucuronidation was the major metabolic pathway; little or no cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism was evident. The majority of circulating radioactivity was constituted by metabolites, with bazedoxifene-5-glucuronide being the predominant metabolite (up to 95%). Bazedoxifene-4'-glucuronide was a minor metabolite (up to 20%), and unchanged bazedoxifene represented 0 to 13% of the radioactivity in most plasma samples. Unchanged bazedoxifene was the major radioactive component in feces, however, reflecting unabsorbed drug and/or glucuronides that were hydrolyzed by intestinal bacterial enzymes. [14C]Bazedoxifene was generally well tolerated. These findings demonstrated that, after oral administration in healthy postmenopausal women, bazedoxifene was rapidly absorbed, metabolized via glucuronidation, and excreted predominantly in feces.

 
 
 
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