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Articles by P Jiang
Total Records ( 4 ) for P Jiang
  P Jiang , J Liu , W Li , X Zeng and J. Tang

The objective of this study was to identify whether polymorphic variants of p53 at codon 72 and p21 at codon 31 were associated with increased risk for cervical cancer, either independently or jointly, among Chinese women from southern Han. We genotyped p53 codon 72 and p21 codon 31 polymorphisms of peripheral blood DNA from 104 cervical cancer patients and 160 controls. Genotyping was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and direct DNA sequencing. We observed an increased risk of cervical cancer associated with the p53 Arg/Arg (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.11–4.54) or p21 Ser/Ser (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.04–4.19) genotype, compared with the p53 Pro/Pro or p21 Arg/Arg genotype, respectively. In additional, interaction between these p53 and p21 polymorphisms increased the risk of cervical cancer in a multiplicative manner, with the OR being 3.96 (95% CI, 1.51–10.41) for subjects carrying both p53 Arg/Arg and p21 Ser/Ser genotypes. These findings suggest that there is a significant association between the genetic polymorphism of p53, p21, and the risk of cervical cancer among Chinese southern women, and there is a possible gene–gene interaction in the incidence of cervical cancer.

  L Lin , P Jiang , S Shen , S Sato , B. L Davidson and Y. Xing

Transposable elements (TEs) are major sources of new exons in higher eukaryotes. Almost half of the human genome is derived from TEs, and many types of TEs have the potential to exonize. In this work, we conducted a large-scale analysis of human exons derived from mammalian-wide interspersed repeats (MIRs), a class of old TEs which was active prior to the radiation of placental mammals. Using exon array data of 328 MIR-derived exons and RT–PCR analysis of 39 exons in 10 tissues, we identified 15 constitutively spliced MIR exons, and 15 MIR exons with tissue-specific shift in splicing patterns. Analysis of RNAs from multiple species suggests that the splicing events of many strongly included MIR exons have been established before the divergence of primates and rodents, while a small percentage result from recent exonization during primate evolution. Interestingly, exon array data suggest substantially higher splicing activities of MIR exons when compared with exons derived from Alu elements, a class of primate-specific retrotransposons. This appears to be a universal difference between exons derived from young and old TEs, as it is also observed when comparing Alu exons to exons derived from LINE1 and LINE2, two other groups of old TEs. Together, this study significantly expands current knowledge about exonization of TEs. Our data imply that with sufficient evolutionary time, numerous new exons could evolve beyond the evolutionary intermediate state and contribute functional novelties to modern mammalian genomes.

  G Muteliefu , A Enomoto , P Jiang , M Takahashi and T. Niwa

Background. Previously, we demonstrated that indoxyl sulphate (IS), a uraemic toxin, induced aortic calcification in hypertensive rats. This study aimed to determine if IS induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of osteoblast-specific proteins in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs).

Methods. In order to achieve these goals, HASMCs were incubated with IS. ROS were detected using probes with a fluorescence detector. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin and organic anion transporters (OAT1, OAT3) was studied by western blotting. The expression of core binding factor 1 (Cbfa1), ALP, osteopontin and NADPH oxidases (Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4) was analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Knockdown of Nox4 was performed by RNA interference (RNAi).

Results. IS induced ROS generation and the expression of Nox4, Cbfa1, ALP and osteopontin in HASMCs. A NADPH oxidase inhibitor and antioxidants inhibited IS-induced ROS production and mRNA expression of Cbfa1 and ALP. Knockdown of Nox4 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited IS-induced ROS production and mRNA expression of Cbfa1, ALP and osteopontin. OAT3 was expressed in HASMCs.

Conclusions. IS induces ROS generation by upregulating Nox4, and the expression of osteoblast-specific proteins such as Cbfa1, ALP and osteopontin in HASMCs.

  P Jiang , S. N Rushing , C. w Kong , J Fu , D. K. T Lieu , C. W Chan , W Deng and R. A. Li

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can self-renew while maintaining their pluripotency. Direct reprogramming of adult somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been reported. Although hESCs and human iPSCs have been shown to share a number of similarities, such basic properties as the electrophysiology of iPSCs have not been explored. Previously, we reported that several specialized ion channels are functionally expressed in hESCs. Using transcriptomic analyses as a guide, we observed tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive (IC50 = 3.3 ± 2.7 mM) delayed rectifier K+ currents (IKDR) in 105 of 110 single iPSCs (15.4 ± 0.9 pF). IKDR in iPSCs displayed a current density of 7.6 ± 3.8 pA/pF at +40 mV. The voltage for 50% activation (V1/2) was –7.9 ± 2.0 mV, slope factor k = 9.1 ± 1.5. However, Ca2+-activated K+ current (IKCa), hyperpolarization-activated pacemaker current (If), and voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV) and voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV) currents could not be measured. TEA inhibited iPSC proliferation (EC50 = 7.8 ± 1.2 mM) and viability (EC50 = 5.5 ± 1.0 mM). By contrast, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) inhibited viability (EC50 = 4.5 ± 0.5 mM) but had less effect on proliferation (EC50 = 0.9 ± 0.5 mM). Cell cycle analysis further revealed that K+ channel blockers inhibited proliferation primarily by arresting the mitotic phase. TEA and 4-AP had no effect on iPSC differentiation as gauged by ability to form embryoid bodies and expression of germ layer markers after induction of differentiation. Neither iberiotoxin nor apamin had any function effects, consistent with the lack of IKCa in iPSCs. Our results reveal further differences and similarities between human iPSCs and hESCs. A better understanding of the basic biology of iPSCs may facilitate their ultimate clinical application.

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