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Articles by P Gupta
Total Records ( 3 ) for P Gupta
  P Gupta , H Rajeswari , M Arumugam , S Mishra , R Bhagavat , P Anand , N Chandra , R Srinivasan , S Indi and P. Ajitkumar

We examined whether C-terminal residues of soluble recombinant FtsZ of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtFtsZ) have any role in MtFtsZ polymerization in vitro. MtFtsZ-C1, which lacks C-terminal extreme Arg residue (underlined in the C-terminal extreme stretch of 13 residues, DDDDVDVPPFMRR), but retaining the penultimate Arg residue (DDDDVDVPPFMR), polymerizes like full-length MtFtsZ in vitro. However, MtFtsZ-C2 that lacks both the Arg residues at the C-terminus (DDDDVDVPPFM), neither polymerizes at pH 6.5 nor forms even single- or double-stranded filaments at pH 7.7 in the presence of 10 mM CaCl2. Neither replacement of the penultimate Arg residue, in the C-terminal Arg deletion mutant DDDDVDVPPFMR, with Lys or His or Ala or Asp (DDDDVDVPPFMK/H/A/D) enabled polymerization. Although MtFtsZ-C2 showed secondary and tertiary structural changes, which might have affected polymerization, GTPase activity of MtFtsZ-C2 was comparable to that of MtFtsZ. These data suggest that MtFtsZ requires an Arg residue as the extreme C-terminal residue for polymerization in vitro. The polypeptide segment containing C-terminal 67 residues, whose coordinates were absent from MtFtsZ crystal structure, was modeled on tubulin and MtFtsZ dimers. Possibilities for the influence of the C-terminal Arg residues on the stability of the dimer and thereby on MtFtsZ polymerization have been discussed.

  R D'Ambrosio , S Hakimian , T Stewart , D. R Verley , J. S Fender , C. L Eastman , A. H Sheerin , P Gupta , R Diaz Arrastia , J Ojemann and J. W. Miller

Experimental animals’ seizures are often defined arbitrarily based on duration, which may lead to misjudgement of the syndrome and failure to develop a cure. We employed a functional definition of seizures based on the clinical practice of observing epileptiform electrocorticography and simultaneous ictal behaviour, and examined post-traumatic epilepsy induced in rats by rostral parasagittal fluid percussion injury and epilepsy patients evaluated with invasive monitoring. We showed previously that rostral parasagittal fluid percussion injury induces different types of chronic recurrent spontaneous partial seizures that worsen in frequency and duration over the months post injury. However, a remarkable feature of rostral parasagittal fluid percussion injury is the occurrence, in the early months post injury, of brief (<2 s) focal, recurrent and spontaneous epileptiform electrocorticography events (EEEs) that are never observed in sham-injured animals and have electrographic appearance similar to the onset of obvious chronic recurrent spontaneous partial seizures. Simultaneous epidural-electrocorticography and scalp-electroencephalography recordings in the rat demonstrated that these short EEEs are undetectable by scalp electrocorticography. Behavioural analysis performed blinded to the electrocorticography revealed that (i) brief EEEs lasting 0.8–2 s occur simultaneously with behavioural arrest; and (ii) while behavioural arrest is part of the rat's behavioural repertoire, the probability of behavioural arrest is greatly elevated during EEEs. Moreover, spectral analysis showed that EEEs lasting 0.8–2 s occurring during periods of active behaviour with dominant theta activity are immediately followed by loss of such theta activity. We thus conclude that EEEs lasting 0.8–2 s are ictal in the rat. We demonstrate that the assessment of the time course of fluid percussion injury-induced epileptogenesis is dramatically biased by the definition of seizure employed, with common duration-based arbitrary definitions resulting in artificially prolonged latencies for epileptogenesis. Finally, we present four human examples of electrocorticography capturing short (<2 s), stereotyped, neocortically generated EEEs that occurred in the same ictal sites as obvious complex partial seizures, were electrographically similar to rat EEEs and were not noted during scalp electroencephalography. When occurring in the motor cortex, these short EEEs were accompanied by ictal behaviour detectable with simultaneous surface electromyography. These data demonstrate that short (<2 s) focal recurrent spontaneous EEEs are seizures in both rats and humans, that they are undetectable by scalp electroencephalography, and that they are typically associated with subtle and easily missed behavioural correlates. These findings define the earliest identifiable markers of progressive post-traumatic epilepsy in the rat, with implications for mechanistic and prophylactic studies, and should prompt a re-evaluation of the concept of post-traumatic silent period in both animals and humans.

  R. C Dwivedi , P Gupta , K Kishore and N. Bhatia

Cystic swellings of the neck in children have limited differential diagnoses, often either lymphatic or vascular malformations. Other cystic inflammations can be the result of tuberculous abscesses, suppurated lymph nodes and actinomycosis. Microfilaria causing lmphadenovarix of head–neck region has not yet been described in the literature. A 10-year-old Indian boy presented with an asymptomatic cystic neck mass of 8 months duration. Aspiration of the swelling demonstrated numerous Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria and the patient responded well to 6 weeks of daily anti-filarial treatment using diethylcarbamazine citrate (6mg kg–1 day–1). This appears to be the first report of microfilariae-associated lymphadenovarix of head–neck region. Though rare, filariasis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for aberrant swellings where lymphatic filarids are endemic.

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