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Articles by P Greenland
Total Records ( 3 ) for P Greenland
  P. S Douglas , A Taylor , D Bild , R Bonow , P Greenland , M Lauer , F Peacock and J. Udelson
 

In July of 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened experts in noninvasive cardiovascular imaging, outcomes research, statistics, and clinical trials to develop recommendations for future randomized controlled trials of the use of imaging in: 1) screening the asymptomatic patient for coronary artery disease; 2) assessment of patients with stable angina; 3) identification of acute coronary syndromes in the emergency room; and 4) assessment of heart failure patients with chronic coronary artery disease with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. This study highlights several possible trial designs for each clinical situation.

  K Nasir , R. L McClelland , R. S Blumenthal , D. C Goff , U Hoffmann , B. M Psaty , P Greenland , R. A Kronmal and M. J. Budoff
 

Background— Whether measuring and reporting of coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) might lead to changes in cardiovascular risk management is not established. In this observational study, we examined whether high baseline CACS were associated with the initiation as well continuation of new lipid-lowering medication (LLM), blood pressure–lowering medication (BPLM), and regular aspirin (ASA) use in a multi-ethnic population-based cohort.

Methods and Results— The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a prospective cohort study of 6814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease at entry who underwent CAC testing at baseline examination (examination 1). Information on LLM, BPLM, and regular ASA usage was also obtained at baseline and at exams 2 and 3 (average of 1.6 and 3.2 years after baseline, respectively). In this study, we examined (1) initiation of these medications at examination 2 among participants not taking these medications at baseline; and (2) continuation of medication use to examination 3 among participants already on medication at baseline. Among MESA participants, initiation of LLM, BPLM, and ASA was greater in those with higher CACS. After taking into account age, sex, race, MESA site, LDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, systolic blood pressure, and socioeconomic status (income, education, and health insurance), the risk ratios for medication initiation comparing those with CACS >400 versus CACS=0 were 1.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08, 2.15) for LLM, 1.55 (95% CI, 1.10 to 2.17) for BPLM, and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.69) for ASA initiation, respectively. The risk ratios for medication continuation among those with CAC >400 versus CACS=0 were 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20) for LLM, 1.05 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.08) for BPLM, and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.25) for ASA initiation, respectively.

Conclusions— CACS >400 was associated with a higher likelihood of initiation and continuation of LLM, BPLM, and ASA. The association was weaker for continuation than for initiation of these preventive therapies.

 
 
 
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