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Articles by P Gonnella
Total Records ( 2 ) for P Gonnella
  M. J Menconi , Z. P Arany , N Alamdari , Z Aversa , P Gonnella , P O'Neal , I. J Smith , S Tizio and P. O. Hasselgren

Muscle wasting during sepsis is at least in part regulated by glucocorticoids and is associated with increased transcription of genes encoding the ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and muscle-specific RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1). Recent studies suggest that muscle atrophy caused by denervation is associated with reduced expression of the nuclear cofactor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- coactivator (PGC)-1β and that PGC-1β may be a repressor of the atrogin-1 and MuRF1 genes. The influence of other muscle-wasting conditions on the expression of PGC-1β is not known. We tested the influence of sepsis and glucocorticoids on PGC-1β and examined the potential link between downregulated PGC-1β expression and upregulated atrogin-1 and MuRF1 expression in skeletal muscle. Sepsis in rats and mice and treatment with dexamethasone resulted in downregulated expression of PGC-1β and increased expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle, with less pronounced changes in the slow-twitch soleus muscle. In additional experiments, adenoviral gene transfer of PGC-1β into cultured C2C12 myotubes resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA levels. Treatment of cultured C2C12 myotubes with dexamethasone or PGC-1β small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in downregulated PGC-1β expression and increased protein degradation. Taken together, our results suggest that sepsis- and glucocorticoid-induced muscle wasting may, at least in part, be regulated by decreased expression of the nuclear cofactor PGC-1β.

  K Itagaki , M Menconi , B Antoniu , Q Zhang , P Gonnella , D Soybel , C Hauser and P. O. Hasselgren

Muscle wasting in various catabolic conditions is at least in part regulated by glucocorticoids. Increased calcium levels have been reported in atrophying muscle. Mechanisms regulating calcium homeostasis in muscle wasting, in particular the role of glucocorticoids, are poorly understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that glucocorticoids increase intracellular calcium concentrations in skeletal muscle and stimulate store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and that these effects of glucocorticoids may at least in part be responsible for glucocorticoid-induced protein degradation. Treatment of cultured myotubes with dexamethasone, a frequently used in vitro model of muscle wasting, resulted in increased intracellular calcium concentrations determined by fura-2 AM fluorescence measurements. When SOCE was measured by using calcium "add-back" to muscle cells after depletion of intracellular calcium stores, results showed that SOCE was increased 15–25% by dexamethasone and that this response to dexamethasone was inhibited by the store-operated calcium channel blocker BTP2. Dexamethasone treatment stimulated the activity of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2), and dexamethasone-induced increase in SOCE was reduced by the iPLA2 inhibitor bromoenol lactone (BEL). In additional experiments, treatment of myotubes with the store-operated calcium channel inhibitor gadolinium ion or BEL reduced dexamethasone-induced increase in protein degradation. Taken together, the results suggest that glucocorticoids increase calcium concentrations in myocytes and stimulate iPLA2-dependent SOCE and that glucocorticoid-induced muscle protein degradation may at least in part be regulated by increased iPLA2 activity, SOCE, and cellular calcium levels.

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